The significance and effects of
mosquito on man can never be overemphasized. No human being or other primates
can live without good health, as the “adage” says that health is wealth. The
aim of this study is to find out or reveal the effect of mosquito on man. It is
also to create awareness to the society on the danger of mosquito, especially
Ovia North East local government area of Edo State.
Four selected villages were
used for this study. In each of the village’s four hundred villages of males
and females ranges from 20-40 years, and 40 and above were served with
questionnaires, which is the basic tool for the study. The finding revealed
that most of the localities were not appropriately informed on the effect of
mosquito on man.
The effect of these findings
was discussed suggestion and preventives or control measures were recommended.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the study
Statement of problems
Purpose of study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Limitations of the study
Definition of terms
Classification and general features of mosquitoes
Habits and habitant of mosquitoes
Life cycle of mosquitoes and its effects
Life cycle of malaria parasite
Life cycle of plasmodium
Research instrumentation and administration
Validity and reliability of instrument
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis
Summary, Conclusion and
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE
Globally, mosquitoes without
questioned the most important of the insects. At present time over 200 million
people in over a hundred and subtropical countries of the world live under the
threat of mosquito. According to world Health Organization (WHO) it is
estimated that mosquito causes or contributes to the deaths of between one and
three million people each year, mostly children under five years of age.
Generally, in science, the study of insects (Etomology) cannot be competed
without the broad heading.
Mosquitos play a very important role in any scientific discipline. It is
noticeable, however, that an initiative insight into the nature and life circle
of any scientific organism only comes to those who have a sound basic of
observation and scientific discipline behind them for one to be successful in
study of mosquitoes and its effects on man a special attention has to be paid
on the study if its habits and life circle. Since special consideration is
given to the environment in which these species of organism dwells, its role
and mode of breeding should also be considered as these affect the life span of
In view of the above differences and diversity, this work will be limited to
the study of mosquitoes and its effects on man. Many of mankind’s idealist
enemes are found among the 85,000 species of stagnant and mosquitoes in “older
dipteral” south largest of the insects groups. Most members of the order have a
single pair of wings, hence the name diptera, meaning two lunged, most of them,
just like the mosquitoes also posses tubular mouths which can piece the human
skin for nourishing blood. The loss of blood is small, but as the insect is
sipping, virus and other pathogens may pass from the insects into the human
host. Sickness such as malaria, yellow fever, elephantiasis is transmitted
through this ways.
There are about fifty species of the family, culiacdac many them are called
Gnats,. They are thin flies with long fragile legs and narrow wings. Only the
female how ever pieces the skins of mammals and suck blood the male defer from
the female in having long pulps and feather like analenae. In Ovia North
East local government in particular and Nigeria in general, there are currently
three species of mosquitoes all of which are potential malaria, elephantiasis and
yellow fever transmitters. The spotted gnat (Anopheles maculipennis) is an
example of the type of mosquitoes the rest with its abdomen raised at an angle
and it head in line with the rest of the body. It has spotted wings and one
sub-species (athroparus) which breeds in blackish water in coastal district.
The common gnat (anlex pipien) is a very abundant mosquitoes near stagnant
water and a type which rest with its abdomen parallel with the surface oni
which its is resting and it head lowered at an angle. Aedes albopictus is one
of the largest and fiercest mosquitoes. It has spotted wings and white ringed
legs and body. The females attack man and other mammals literate in building,
something and rests in the same position and has a very similar life history to
that of a common gnat.
The mosquitoes as a member of the “orde” diptera has no posterior pair of wings
but the posterior pair is represented only a pair of small club shaped
structures, the halters. These look useless, but this cannot fly without them.
A fly with its halters cut off can still beat its wings at the normal frequency
and through the normal angle, but it lose control in the air, it a straight
course and aliable to fall on its back. These halteres have an important
function in the control of flight.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Accurate figures has shown that
the mortality (death rate) of human being increases rapidly and again, there is
an indication that the breeding rate of certain insects like mosquitoes is
increasing geometrically too. T he entomology of insects, mosquitoes to be
precise shows that most of the death of human being are caused as a result of
the diseases transmitted by these vectors to their hosts. An insight of such
diseases transmitted by the vectors are malaria caused by the females anopheles
mosquitoes, yellow fever, caused by creoles mosquitoes. The transmission of the
diseases I normally through the blood stream which contaminate the pure blood,
resulting in acute sickness that are characterized by many symptoms such as
sever fever, headache, vomiting, tiredness, dizziness loss of appetite which
may finally result to death.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE
The purpose of the study is to
know the effect of mosquitoes on man. It is believed that in Africa as a whole
and in Nigeria in particular, the diseases transmitted by mosquitoes to their
host-man contributes immensely to about two third (2/3) of the total death
recorded annually. So, it is worthwhile to take proper study of these adverse
effects and hence know the panacea to curb the problems by reducing the
breeding rate of these vectors (INSECTS). Also, the study is to create
awareness of the effects of mosquitoes on man.
Therefore, this research will
help us to study properly of our environment and know what causes the high
breeding rate of these insects (particularly mosquitoes) and their control or
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
The study will provide
knowledge on the danger and effect of malaria on human being. It is serves as a
reaching text to members of the public, who could want to gain more or have a
deeper knowledge, on the effects of mosquitoes on man. It also will serve as
awareness to the people of Ovia North East local government area and to
encourage non government organizations (NGOs) to participate in campaigning to
the people on the danger of mosquitoes to man and its preventive measures.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS OF
Can illiteracy about mosquitoes increase the rate of growth of mosquitoes and
its effect on individual in a community?
Are mosquitoes more than people living in urban areas? As well as rural areas?
Can the use of mosquito’s net help to prevent malaria epidemic.
Do non government organizations (NGOs) has a role ton play in creasing
awareness or campaigning to the rural and urban areas?
Do government has a role to play in eradicating mosquitoes as a vector?
Does poor environmental sanitation lead to the spread of
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study was carried out
within Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State, in the following
locations/villages, Okada, Usen, Uhen, and Iginge.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Accedes mosquitoes: These are
carried of yellow fevers.
Entomology mosquitoes: These
are a branch of science, which deals with the study of mosquitoes.
Culex mosquitoes: These are
carriers of elephantiasis and filariasis.
Epidemic disease: These are
rapid diseases that can spread among many people.
Hypothesis: An idea or suggestions
that are based on known facts and is used as a basis for reasoning or further
Mosquitoes: Mosquitoes are
parasitic organism that suck human blood (female) and spread diseases such as
malaria, yellow fever or elephantiasis.
Parasites: parasites are small
organism that lives in (endoparasites) or outside cectoparasites) another large
organism (the host) from which the parasite obtain food without contributing
anything in return. Example mosquitoes, tick and fleas etc.
Swampy area: These are areas of
low land along the coast, which is been regularly flooded by the rivers, seas
and ocean. It is a region of heavy and frequent.
Vector: These are organism that
World Health Organization (WHO)
These are organ of united nation (UN) which foresee or responsible for health.
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