Unwanted pregnancy followed by unsafe abortion can be avoided by using different contraceptive methods. Information on knowledge, attitude and practice of contraceptives among youth is particular important because of high rates of teenage and unwanted pregnancies as well as soaring STI and HIV.AIDS rates. Unfortunately, in Nigeria, the case is not different as significant proportion of youth who engages in premarital sex, either lack basic knowledge of contraception, or are ignorant about contraceptive practices. This study examined the knowledge, and use of contraceptive method among youths in Ejigbo of Osun state Nigeria.
Rapid rise in population has caused serious problems in the economic growth and all round human development leading to poverty in developing countries (Dabhadkar and Zade, 2012). Family planning has been promoted through several methods of contraception, but due to serious adverse effects produced by synthetic steroidal contraception (Bingel and Benoit, 1973 ;Bingel and Benoit, 1973), attention has been focused on indigenous plants for possible contraceptive effect.
The importance of plants as a source of antifertility drugs has been emphasized by many researchers (Farnsworth et al., 1975; Yakubu et al., 2007).
Herbal contraceptives and abortifacients are those plants used for birth control or in the prevention of pregnancy and for premature expulsion of a foetus from the womb. Many plants have been reported to have sterilizing, contraceptive and abortifacient properties (Bablola, 2009). Plants that have contraceptive and abortifacient properties may act through rapid expulsion of the fertilized ova from the fallopian tube, inhibition of implantation due to a disturbance in oestrogen - progesterone balance, foetal abortion, perhaps due to lack of supply of nutrients to the uterus and the embryo, and also on the male side through affecting sperm count, motility and viability (Ciganda and Laborde, 2003; Kaunitz and Benrubi,1998; Nounmi and Tchakonang, 2001).
Antifertility agents obtained from indigenous medicinal plants would be of immense benefit especially to inhabitant of developing countries, since the cost of these drugs would be within their means (Goonasekera et.al. 1995).
Moreover, major population of the country lives in rural areas and those people have not approach to the modern method of family planning. Traditional sterilization method based on herbal medicines is used to control population growth rate: including abortion at initial weeks, preventing conception of making the either member of the couple sterile.
Several plant product inhibit male and female fertility and may be developed into contraceptives. Even though, many indigenous plants have been shown to prevent the birth, only few plants have so far been investigated for antifertility activities. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has set up a task force on plant research for fertility regulation with an objective to find new orally active non-steroidal contraceptive compounds. Various medicinal plants extracts have been tested for their anti-fertility activity both in male and female.
Several hormonal contraceptives have been developed and practiced till date but they did not meet the demand of developing countries as they are chemical based expensive, sophisticated and have some side effects, some herbal contraceptive have also been developed. But due to the problems, people are now looking for the use of herbal medicines against various diseases and for controlling fertility (Patil and Patil 2013). Nearly 80% of the world populations rely on traditional medicines for primary health care, so far it has lesser side effects and more effective than the chemical compounds (Kaur et al. 2011).
1.2 Statement of the problem
Numerous herbs have been used historically to reduce fertility, and modern scientific research has confirmed anti-fertility effects in at least some of the herbs tested. Herbal contraception may never reach the level of contraceptive protection as the pill, but it offers alternatives for women who have difficulty with modern contraceptive options or who just want to try a different way. Very little is known about many of the herbs, or about long term side effects or safety concerns.
1.3 Scope of the Study
The project is being carried out purposely to examine and document the plants used as contraceptives. The study shall cover the problem associated with the use of modern contraception in developing countries and it will most base on Nigeria.
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate and document the plants used as contraceptive.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This research study is hoped to be valuable to every Nigerian citizen and to the whole world at large. This study is significant in the following area
1. It will alleviate
2. It will shed knowledge on the need for Herbal Contraceptives and
3. It will expose the Mechanism of actions of herbal drugs
1.6 Research Question
i. is there any significance advantage of plant contraceptive over medicinal contraceptive?
ii. are people familiar with the use of plants as contraceptive?
1.7 Definition of Terms
Contraception: is the practice of preventing a woman from becoming pregnant when she has sex.
Contraceptive: a drug, object or method used to prevent a woman from becoming pregnant when she has sex.
Inhibit: to prevent something from growing or developing well
Abortifacient: are those substances which causes early expulsion of foetus (Kabra et al 2013)