This study evaluated the
antilipidemic activity of water extracts from leaves of Desmodium velutinum on albino wistar
rats. The phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract showed the presence of
tannins, saponins, alkaloids, soluble carbohydrates, flavonoids, reducing
sugar, steroids, cyanide and terpenoids. The animals were treated with known
drugs (atorvastatin 2ml). There were significantly reductions in HDL 13.00 1.41
mg/dl LDL 1.20 0.14 mg/dl and triglyceride 39.00 0.14 mg/dl, compared with
water extract of Desmodium velutinum (0.5ml).
when administered was found to significantly reduce lipid plasma which was LDL
1.90 0.00mg/dl, triglyceride 50.00 0.00mg/dl and increase HDL 25.00 0.00 mg/dl
which is the good cholesterol. The water extract of Desmodium
velutinum leaf can possibly normalize the plasma lipid when compared
with the group given atorvastatin. The phytochemicals analysis showed that the
association between these complexes and compounds and other constituent play an
important role in the biological activity of the leaf. This study suggested
that the water extract of D.velutinum leaf
posses hypolipidemic as well as antilipidemic effect.
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
lipoprotein abnormalities play a major role
in the development and progression of coronary artery diseases. Low
levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterols have been identified as
independent coronary risk factors (Rodrigue et
al., 2010). High level of blood cholesterol is responsible for
circulatory system disorder. Increase level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is
alarming for cardiovascular diseases and their risk is increased many times
(Harman et al., 2011).
In developing countries, the
occurrence of heart diseases increases rapidly (Nordestgard et al., 2010). Medical studies show that
about 70% of adults over 50 years old suffer atherosclerosis. (Sherien and
Azza, 2009). A large number of synthetic hypolipidemic drugs are available in
market. Long term use of these drugs cause serious side effects, and are
A medicinal plant is any plant
which in one or more of its organ, contains substance that can be used for
therapeutic purpose or which is a precursor for synthesis of useful drugs
(Sivakumar et al., 2007). Plant
contains a large number of bioactive phytochemicals that are responsible for
pharmacological action of plants and used for development of drugs. Many
medicinal plants have shown their antilipidemic effect and proved their
efficacy in cardiovascular diseases (Nordestgard et
al., 2010; Wang, 1999).
One of such plants used very
often in the management of the disease by the traditional medicine
practitioners of Eastern Nigeria is Desmodiumvelutium, a perennial plant erect or
semi-erect shrub or sub-shrub up to 3m light. It is widely distributed in
subtropical Asia and tropical Africa. (Amowi and Azode, 2012).
Extracts of Desmodium velutium are used
traditionally in some disease conditions particularly aphrodisiac and headache.
Desomdium velutium may be a source of a pharmacological active agent useful in the
treatment of aches, pains and diarrhoea. In Ghana, native doctors mix the root
of Desmodium lasincarpum with
some hot peppers and use it as enema to cure blood in urine. In Eastern States
of Nigeria, the plant locally knowngwuani”(Onyegbuleas.“Ikeaetal.,2012). In
these present studies, I investigated the antilipidemic activity of the water (H2O) extract of
Desmodium velutinum Leaves on albino wistar rats.
velutinum is an upright woody perennial herb, sub-shrub or shrub,
up to 3m tall (Onyegbule, et al., 2012).
Leaflets are light green
to blue, green or darker above, paler beneath and with prominent pallid veins,
roundish to elliptic to rhombic ovate, 3-9.4cm long , 2-7cm wide, entire or
repaid (indented at the termination of the lateral veins) and ciliate, think,
mostly soft velvety on both Surface with long stiff golden, reddish or white
hairs. Inflorescence arises in left axis, and at the end of branches. They are
densely flowered racemes up to 10cm or mere long; at least the terminal ones
often paniculately branched. Flowers are white pink to blue, mauve or brilliant
purple, usually appearing whitish or pale when dry.
Common names –velvet leaf D,
Hind: Jagru, Lagavang, Lippa-Pank
Malayalam:Orial, Sanskrit, Prasnipani
Tamil:Akilametaki, Amcapatayilni, Ankachupati
Telugu: Cliua madu, chimanduri
India: Lalkan while local name: Ikeagwuani (Igbos)
Other species of Desmodium include Desmodium lasiocarpum, Desmodiumgangeticm, Desmodium repandum, Desmodium
styracitolium, Desmodium diffusum, Desmodium heterophyllum, Desmodium triflorum,
Desmodium velutinum can adapt to a wide range of soil PH, from very acid (pH 4.0) to
alkaline. It also prefers more humidity climates of >1000>3000mm rainfall
1 year, tolerates up to 5 months dry season. It grows at altitudes from
0.1-500m with average temperature above 200C
and has some shade tolerances as it grows in forest verges in New Guinea.
2.1.1 BIOLOGICAL AND MEDICINAL USE
The water extract of Desmodium velutinum is use as an
aphrodisiac (a substance that increases sexual desire, example of such plants
includes tumera aphrodisiac, zingibar Offieinale, Mucuna Pruriens etc).
In South-East Asia, they are
considered other prominent uses are the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and
stomach ache. Desmodium velutinum may
be a source of pharmacological active agent useful in the treatment of aches,
pains and pyretic. It is also have diuretic effects (a substance that causes an
increase in the flow of urine)
2.1.2 USES OF OTHER SPECIES OF DESMODIUM:
Desmodium shows a wide range of medicinal uses. In Ghana, native doctors mix
the roots of Desmodium lasiocarpum with
some hot-peppers and use it as enema to cure blood in urine. In the
Philippines, a decoction of Desmodium
triflorum is used as a mouth wash and as a expectorant (a cough
medicine that helps you to get rid of thick liquid from the lungs). In India,
fresh leaves of Desmodium triflorumare
used internally as a galactagogue (a
substance that increases lactation milk supply), some of the most commonly used
herbal galactagogues are
fenugreek, blessed thistle, alfalfa; and in Taiwan, the whole plant is used
against fever, rheumatism, Jaundice and gonorrhea. Desmodium
incanum is used as a diuretic, stomachic, Febrifuge and hemostatic in
Central America. Desmodium heterocarpon are
primarily forages, but are also used medicinally in Malesia. The boiled roots
Desmodium heterocarpon are used in Malaysia to poultice sore breasts, and a
decoction of the plant is regarded as a tonic and a bechic (a cough
suppressant). In Cambodia, the stems of Desmodium
heterocarpon are applied to fracture and snake bite. In Taiwan, a
decoction of the root is used against rickets in children.
Desmodium heterophyllum is applied in Malaysia to treat sores, earache,
stomach-ache and abdominal complaints. In India, the roots are considered
carminative (a herb that either prevents formation of gas in the
gastrointestinal tract or facilitates the expulsion of gas, thereby combating
flatulence), tonic and diuretic, the leaves are used as a galactagogue and a decoction of the
whole part plant is used to treat stomach-ache and abdominal problems. Desmodium gangeticum, Desmodium sequax,Desmodium styracifolium, Desmodium
repandum are use in treating wounds, ulcers, toothache, stones in the
gall bladder, kidneys or bladder and other skin problems.
PLANTS FOR ANTILIPIDEMIC
Other plants for lowering
lipoprotein level in the body.
Terminalia Arjuna: Botanical name
Terminalia arjuna is a big evergreen tree up to 25meters high, bark grey, smooth
leaves, flower small and fruits are 2.3-2.5m long. It has great importance due
to its curative properties in heart problems. Phytochemicals belonging to
different classes are present in the bark of terminalia
arjuna including tannins, triterpenoids, saponina, arjunic acid,
arjunolic acid, arjungenin (Manna et
Experimental studies revealed
its dark shaved significant antioxidant (Vaidya et
al., 2008; Shridhar and
Gopal, 2009), antidiabetic (Raghavan and Kumari, 2006) antigastric ulcer (Devi et al., 2007), antimutagenic (Vaidya et al., 2008), anthelmintic, (Bachaya et
al., 2009) activities.
The bark is useful in
cardiovascular diseases, especially in disturbed cardial rhythm angina or myocardial
infraction. Clinical studies suggested that it improves the blood circulation
to heart, regulate blood pressure
(Nammi et al., 2003) is used for treatment of
hypercholesterolemia (Jiwari et al., 1990; Ram et al., 1997; Chander et al., 2004) and inhibit the
platelet aggregation (Namita et al., 2009). It protects liver and kidneys
against the harmful effect of free radicals.
Botanical Name- Trigonella foenum- graecum.
Trigonella foenum- graecum commonly know as fenugreek (methi) is a
widely cultivated aromatic herb varying in height from thirty or sixty
centimeter and used both as vegetable (leaves) and spice (seeds) (Toppo et al., 2009). The seeds are known as
“Maithr pickles, curry powders. The young leaves are eaten as vegetable and
leaves (called Kasuri methi)
have a bitter taste and strong characteristic smell.
Experimental studies revealed
that trigonella foenum seed
and leaves extracts possess strong antidiabetic activity (Sharma et
al., 2009;Vats et al.,
seeds contain high quantity of saponins and glactosamine, whose cholesterol
lowering effect is well established (Bahram et
al., 2005;Xue et al., 2007).
immunomodulatory potential of this important plant is need to be explored.
Botanical Name: Rheum emodi Rheum emodi is commonly known as rhubarb, revand
chini. It is a perennial plant that grows from Rhizomes. Rhubarb is an
important herb used in ayurvedic medicines. It is a very important
hepatoprotective and showed very good results against chemically induced
elevated level of AST, ALT and ALP in serum (Ibrahim et al., 2008, Akhtar et al., 2009). Antibacterial
(Babu et al., 2003),
antifungal (Agarwal et al., 2000), hypoglycemic (Li and
Wang, 1997) nephroprotective (Alam et
al., 2005), Laxative,
appetite stimulant, diuretic and anthelminthic activities.
immunomodulatory potential of this plant need to be explored.
of antilipidemic plants include coriandrum sativum, Euophorbia tirvealli,
cyperus rotundus etc.
2.2.1 ADVANTAGE OF MEDICINAL PLANT
(ANTILIPIDEMIC PLANTS) OVER SYNTHETIC DRUGS:
Medicinal plant is any plant
which in one or more of its organ, contains substance that can be used for
therapeutic purpose or which is a precursor for synthesis of useful drugs.
Plants contains a large number of bioactive phytochemicals that are responsible
for pharmacological action of plants and used for development of known drugs or
a cheap source of known drugs such as reserpine from ravwolfia species.
Medicinal plants (Antilipidemic
plant) are receiving extra ordinary importance and popularity as safe,
efficacious and cost effective medicines with extraordinary benefits due to
combination of medicinal ingredients with vitamins and minerals for antilipidemic
activity. Many medicinal plants have shown their antilipidemic effects and
proved their efficacy in cardiovascular diseases (Jain et al., 2007; Wang, 1999).
Synthetic drugs are those drugs
with properties and effects similar to a known hallucinogen or narcotic but
having a slightly altered chemical structure, especially such a drug created in
order to evade restrictions against illegal substance. In synthetic drugs, the
efficacy is not 100% guarantee. The frequent use of some drugs has severe side
effects for example, in atorvastatin (Lipitor) drug, its side effect is
diarrhea, headache etc. while
Desmodium velutinum is use in treating of diarrhea, headache and reduces pain etc. In
synthetic drugs, the costly of the latter is increased by modern health
technology which in many cases is inappropriate or irrelevant to the immediate
needs of people in developing countries.
2.3LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEIN:
Definition of Lipid:
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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