This work was aimed on motivation and employee productivity with
particular reference to Nigerian Bottling Company Enugu. Questionnaire was
prepared and administered to the randomly selected staff of the company and
simple percentage was used to analyze the data obtained from the respondents.
Results show that, as at time of this research the
Nigerian Bottling Company does not take the motivation of its workforce
seriously. Lack of adequate staff
motivation causes staff discrimination and this result to low and declining
productivity. Another factor that causes low and declining productivity
was job insecurity occasioned by frequent staff rationalization exercise i.e.
reduction of workforce as well as frequent delay in staff remuneration. The
manager of the company as a matter of urgent should create a conducive work
environment to motivation all enable their employees actualizes their
potentials, staff promotion and other incentives as a motivational inducement.
1.1 Background of the
1.2 Statement of
1.3 Objectives of the
1.5 Significance of the
1.6 Scope of the
1.7 Limitations of the
1.8 Definition of terms
2.1 Definition of
2.2 Theories of
2.3 Summary of Literature
3.0 Research Design and
3.2 Area of
3.3 Population of
3.5 Instrument of Data
3.6 Validity of
3.7 Reliability of
3.8 Method of Data
3.9 Method of Data
4.0 Data presentation and
5.0 Summary of findings, recommendations and
5.1 Summary of
5.4 Suggestion for further
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE
is an internal state that activates, guides and sustains behaviour. Motivation
is also the driving force by which we achieve our goals.Motivation is said to
be intrinsic or extrinsic.
According to various theories,
motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize
pleasure or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting or a
desired object, goal, state of being, ideal or it may be attributed to
less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality or avoiding
Motivation should not be confused with either volition or
optimism. Motivation is related to but distinct from emotion.
and extrinsic motivation
refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task
itself and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external
has been studied by social and educational psychologists since the early 1970s.
Research has found that it is usually associated with high educational
achievement and enjoyment by students. Explanations of intrinsic motivation
have been given in the context of Fritz Heiders attribution theory Bandura’s
work on self-efficacy and Deci and Ryan’s cognitive evaluation theory, for
example, Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they:
A. Attribute their educational results to
internal factors that they can control (e.g. the amount of effort they put in).
B. Believe they can be effective agents in
reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck).
C. Are interested in mastering a topic,
rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades.
comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards
like money and grades, coercion and threat of punishment.
Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the
performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the
activity. A crowd cheering on the individual and trophies are also extrinsic
incentives. Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards
can lead to over justification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic
motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be
rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time
playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who
were assigned to an unexpected reward condition and to children who received no
theory also proposes that extrinsic motivation can be internalized by the
individual if the task fits with their values and beliefs and therefore helps
to fulfill their basic psychological needs.
The control of
motivation is only understood to a limited extent. There are many different
approaches of motivation training but many of these are considered
pseudoscientific by critics. To understand how to control motivation, it is
first necessary to understand why many people lack motivation.
Workers in a company,
an organization, industries etc, needs something to keep them working. Most
times the salary of the employee is enough to keep him or her working for an
organization company, industries etc.
However, sometimes just
working for salary is not enough for employees to stay at working place. An
employee must be motivated to work for an efficient productivity. If no
motivation is present then that employee’s quality of work or all work in
general will deteriorate. When motivating an employee, you can use general
motivational strategies or specific motivational appeals. General motivational
strategies include soft sell versus, hard sell strategies and personality
type. Soft sell strategies have logical appeals, emotional appeals, advice
and praise. Hard sell strategies have barter, out numbering, pressure and
rank. Also, you can consider basing your strategy on your employee’s
Specific motivational appeals focus on provable facts, feeling,
right and wrong, employee rewards and employee threats. At lower levels of
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, such as physiological needs. Money is a motivator
however, it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a
short period (in accordance with Herzberg’s two factor model of motivation).
At higher levels of the
hierarchy and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money,
as both Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation and Douglas McGregor’s theory X
and theory Y. Maslow has money at the lowest level of the hierarchy and shows
other needs are better motivators to staff.
Mc Gregory places money in his theory X category and feels it is a
poor motivator, praise and recognition are considered stronger motivators than
A. Motivated employees always look for
better ways to do a job.
B. Motivated employees are more quality
C. Motivated workers are more productive.
The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and
Motivation by threat is a dead end strategy and naturally staffs
are more attracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the
threat side. Motivation is a powerful tool in the work environment that
can lead to employees working at their most efficient levels of production.
also discusses three common character types of subordinates, the are;
ascendant, indifferent and ambivalent who all react and interact uniquely and
must be treated, manage and motivation according.
An effective manager
must understand how to manage all characters and more importantly must utilize
avenues that allow room for employees to work, grow and find answers
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
of employee is a subject of considerable concern to management in both
principle and public organization. There are labour to exist low morale
disillusionment and lacks of dedication to duty among the workers employees.
The real value of the
salaries of salary earner’s have plummeted because of the goods occasioned by
bad economy, these salary earners feel unduly exploited. This situation leads
to lack of indiscipline. These psychological and emotional problems
precipitated negative attitudes part of the workers. As a result of these
problems, they never be serious in their working place.
Finally, when workers
are not adequately motivated they bound the achievement of the company goals as
they feel that the job is not worth all the suffering.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE
overriding objectives of this study is to review the way by which workers of
Nigerian Bottling Company Enugu situated at 9th Mile
Corner Ngwo, Enugu can be motivated.
EFFECT WOULD BE MADE
1. To ascertain what type of motivation of
workers needs can be motivated with extrinsic reward or combination.
2. To examine the various type of
motivation and their implications to both the employees and to ascertain the
best approach for employee’s motivation.
3. To examine the effect of motivation and
non-motivator on workers morale dedication to duty and productivity.
4. The study should also look into the
factors responsible for low morale, absences, lack of dedication of duty.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
following research question was formulated to guide the study.
1. What are the reactions of employees
towards motivation or non-motivation?
2. Does motivation or non-motivation or
combination of both a successful path towards increased productivity by
3. What extent are the salary segregation
between department and another.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
The effectiveness of
any company depends on its ability to motivate and reward adequately and fair
motivation leads to high productivity, high morale and dedication to duty among
the employees. The present study is essential in that it is hoped that the
output of this study will help the Nigerian Bottling Company 9th Mile Ngwo, Enugu management indeed
to identify areas of lapses on their parts, its effects on employees motivation
and adopt more human attitude towards their workers.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
study carried a research on Nigerian Bottling Company, 9th Mile
Corner Ngwo, Enugu. It focused on attitude of employees when they are
The Nigerian Bottling Company 9th Mile
Corner Ngwo Enugu has staff strength of about 1,500 (one thousand, five
hundred) employees at this research, but a representative sample at all
categories or departments was selected using stratified random sampling
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The usage of the
following terms in this project is limited to their meaning as given in the
This refers to the attitude and feeling of employees towards their
establishment and working relationship.
This is the process of getting things done through others to
achieve the company goals or objectives.
This means the factor or reason that stimulates action, mainly or
external factors that stimulates reaction in person.
This is the reaction of useful result obtained to the resources
expanded in obtaining them. Productivity of labour denotes or indicates
efficiency or physical output par man-hour.
This stands for
compensation for work. It can be paid weekly, monthly,
This is a method of sampling where by heterogeneous population is
divided into states or layer, in such a away that each stratum or layer is made
homogenous and then sampled at random.
This term refers to that which causes an organism to
act. In general, when we speak of motives
it means the causes or reasons that underline a given behaviour.
Physiologically, the term “needs” refers to a condition of :lack”
or “deficiency” in a person or other organisms.
An employee is any person who has undertaken to place his gainful
activity in return for remuneration, under the direction and control of another
who may be an individual, a private or public organization.
This term defined as company or a person that pays people to work
for them. It also one who control or direct a worker under an express or
contract of higher and pays the workers salaries or wages.
11. FRINGE BENEFITS
This term stands for other benefits the employee received outside
his statutory or basic salary.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
For more informations on project materials and more