This research work is focused on manpower development and
utilization in indigenous business organizations using four firms as a case
study. It has been observed that a major problem confronting organizations in
this present dispensation is the fact that productivity of workers is low.
In order to improve on the productivity of workers and their efficiency,
they need to be properly trained and utilized for the purpose which they
serve. Therefore calls for proper development training and
full utilization of employees for this objectives is likely to be achieved as
nothing can be demoralized to a worker as when he believes that he has been
unduly rated below expectation and can not serve. In order to address this
problem squarely, research questions were formulated and hypothesis drawn from
various researcher instruments. Questionnaires were used in the process and was
administered to all the workers (sample size) Similarly, documentary sources
were also used on the data collection process. The data collected was
analyzed with the aid of the research questions and hypothesis which gives rise
to certain findings, conclusion was drawn and recommendations were made based
on the informating gathered and data analyzed.
1.1 Background of the
1.2 Statement of the
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
1.9 Definition of
2.0 Review of Related
2.1 Concept of Manpower
2.2 Problems of Manpower
2.3 Aims of Manpower
2.4 Manpower Development
2.6 Concept of Manpower Utilization
2.7 Problems of Manpower
3.0 Research Design and
3.2 Area of the
3.3 Population of the
3.4 Sample and Sampling
3.5 Instrument for Data
3.6 Validity of
3.7 Reliability of
3.8 Method of Data
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of
4.2 Testing of
4.3 Summary of Results
5.0 Discussion of Results /
5.1 Discussion of Results and
1.1 Background of the Study
Nigeria like most other developing countries has had her fair
share of the problems of development. One of the areas in which problem
have been posed comes as the main focus of this work. ‘The manpower
sector’ Simply defined manpower as the basic resource of any productive
process. It combines all other factors of production to produce goods and
services which are beneficial to mankind.
Nwachukwu (1982 : 14) recounted Kuznet’s assertion that “The major
capital stock of any industrially advanced nation is not its physical equipment
rather, it is the body of knowledge collected from tested findings discoveries,
empirical science and the capacity and training of its population to use its
Ojo et al (1986 : 41) also stated the words of the late American
president John F. kennedy in his first manpower report as follows: “Manpower is
the basic resource. It is the indispensable means of converting other
resources to mankind’s uses and benefit. How well we develop and employ
human skills is fundamental in deciding how much we achieve as a nation.
The manpower in which we do so moreover with profoundly determine the kind of
nation will become”.
The inability of any third world country to achieve full
industrialization can be attributed to problems of manpower development and
utilization. The process of developing and utilizing manpower in Nigeria
has been surrounded by numerous difficulties which makes it almost impossible
for industries to perform satisfactory.
The area of manpower utilization being the proper use of workforce
has also been posed with crucial problems. These problems can also be
looked at as manpower development problems as manpower utilization is an
integral part of manpower development.
A one-time secretary general of the United Nations Mr. U. Thant in
his report the third (3rd) session of
UNESCO in 1967 listed some problem areas thus:
i. Matching existing skills with effective demand
ii. Use of skills required
iii. Popular participation in development
iv. Increased involvement in the economy by certain
potentially productive groups in the population.
v. Loss of skilled persons through temporary or
Occurrence of the above listed problems are very minimal in more
advanced countries unlike in third world countries where here exist high levels
of unemployment, loss of skilled personnel through emigration and so many other
problems arising from the ineffective development and utilization of manpower.
All these problem constitute part of the barriers between third
world countries and industrialization. Coming down to the organizational
level, the problems are largely similar but only differ in scope.
Organizational problems are a lot narrower in scope than national problems.
However, in indigenous organizations, manpower is an important
factor that enables the organization grows which make sit more necessary to
develop and utilize manpower.
In other words manpower development and utilization plays an
important role in the growth of indigenous organizations. In the course of this
study, we shall try to investigate the causes of problems in a number of
selected indigenous firms. Solutions and recommendation will be given s
to how best the alleviate these problems based on the findings.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
From the foregoing, it can be said that growth and productivity of
any organization is largely dependent on human performance. However due
to the dynamic nature of our society, new technologies came up everyday and old
ones become obsolete. This is particularly true of indigenous Nigerian
organizations who have to keep up with every day changes in technology.
These organizations are faced with a problem in effectively
developing manpower to keep up with the continually rising pace of
development. Also encompassed here is the problem of using already
available skilled and semi-skilled manpower to achieve optimal result.
All these the workers’ strive for self and career development and
thus the productivity of the organizations. Since countries become more
advanced economically and technologically, they become more vulnerable to under
motivated workers and managers social values are shifted away from work as the
most important thing in town towards a balanced view of self development,
family development and career development.
In a nutshell, the inability of organizations to effectively
develop and utilize the human resources available to them has reduced to a
great extent, its ability to adhere its objectives. This is the problem
that this research sets out to tackle.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This study is being carried out to achieve a number of objectives
of which are:
i. To identify the factors that hinders the
effective development and utilization of manpower.
ii. To examine the extent to which these factor
affect the performance of workers in indigenous organizations
iii. To determine if workers are sent for training
and development in line with new technology.
iv. To ascertain the level of workers sent on
training and development
v. To find out whether they are fully utilized
after the training course.
1.4 Research Questions
In pursuit of the research purpose of this study, the following
questions have been formulated.
i. Is there any relationship between manpower
development / utilization and organizational performance?
ii. Of what importance is manpower in the production
iii. To what extent is its importance appreciated by
iv. To what extent is effective manpower development
and utilization likely to enhance productivity of organizations?
v. Are workers sent for internal and external
training and development courses?
vi. Are they properly utilized after training?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The significance of this study is one that is of great importance
and will be of benefit to the following groups:
For the purpose of this research, the following hypotheses have
been designed for analysis.
skill and knowledge of workers can be increased through training, development
The skill and knowledge of workers cannot be increased through training,
development and promotion.
moral of workers are increased through training and development.
moral of workers are not increased through training and development.
increased of managerial turnover in organization can be minimized by giving
more training to the managerial staff.
increased of managerial turnover in organization cannot be minimized by giving
more training to the managerial staff.
1.6 Significance of the
The study will help all the companies especially Cadbury Nigeria
plc to find out if their training development and promotion enhance
productivity leads to a reduction in a managerial turnover and to show if it
will serve as a means of booster to the employee.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study deals with the problems facing indigenous organizations
in the aspect of manpower; its development and utilization. The study
covers indigenous business firms only in Enugu State.
There is no doubt that the restriction will affect the
generalization of the findings of this study but it is hoped that the sample
size is wide enough to draw conclusions.
1.8 Definition of Terms
For improved understanding of this work, it is necessary to define
some key words used in this study
a. Manpower Craftsmen
or other skills which are employed in creating, designing and operating
productive and service organizations or other economic institutions.
The gradual growth of something so that it becomes more advanced and
c. Utilization The
extent to which the capacities and skills are being used effectively.
Organizations These are organizations whose ownership and control
rests fully on the natives of the country in which it operates.
The situation where people leave their country to live permanently in another
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