This research work is designed to examine unemployment problems in
Ugwunye such that the extent or level of unemployment in terms of age, sex, and
distribution among the communities will be highlighted, and finally solving
these problems through the study of existing small scale enterprises with a
view to advising appropriately the entrepreneurs on the best ways to achieve
Secondly, it is aimed at finding ways and manner the government at
the three tiers and non-governmental organizations could help solve such
problems through establishment of more business centres and the provision of
appropriate materials, money and relevant training through seminars and workshops.
This research is divided into three chapters; chapter one is
introduction, which focuses on the background, associated problems, the
concerned problems and the importance of the study.
Chapter two is the literature review, which includes the school of
thought and methods of studying the problems.
Chapter three is concerned with the conclusion, which brings out
data presentation analysis of the data and recommendation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 General Background on the
1.2 Problems Associated with the Subject matter
1.3 Problems that the Study will be concerned with
1.4 The Importance of the studying the area
1.5 Definition of importance Terms
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 The Origin of the Subject
2.2 School of Thought Within The Subject Area
2.3 School of Thought Relevant to the Research
2.4 Different Methods of Studying the Problem
3.1 Data presentation
(Highlight of the Study
3.2 Analysis of the Data
1.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND ON THE
For one to appreciate the degree of unemployment in Ugwunye
Development Center, it is necessary to X-ray the background of the subject
matter. This Ugwunye is geopolitically located towards the North West of Udi
Local Government Area and as such severally disadvantaged especially in
employment and setting up of all sorts of Business including the small scale
It is therefore very pertinent to define both UNEMPLOYMENT and
SMALL SCALE BUSINESS generally and narrow them down to Ugwunye as the case may
It is really difficult to define precisely unemployment in the
economic literature. However, “unemployment is defined as a situation in which
people who are willing to work at the prevailing WAGE RATE CANNOT FIND JOBS”.
This definition is according to Augustus N. Gbosi (Ph.D) in his book, “Monetary
Economics and Nigeria Financial System (1993) page 241 as published by Pam
unique in Port Harcourt. The fact remains that the labour force in Ugwunye is
high because people within the employable ages 15 – 40 years are all seeking
paid employment and as such should be counted as part of the unemployment
labour force. The definition lays emphasis on WILLINGNESS because if the
emphasis is not so laid, the official rate of unemployment could be over
emphasized. Here again labour force means all persons who are 15 years and
above and that are either working for pay or actively seeking paid employment.
Since labour force comprises the employed and unemployed particularly in
Ugwunye (Egede and Affa) especially
after the primary education (13 years and above).
Definition of small-scale business is equally inexhaustible, but an attempt
should be made to Nigeria environment According to Ani N. et
al in their book “Small Business Entrepreneurship” (2002) pages
2&3 and published by NERCE PUBLICATION any manufacturing establishments
whose manpower is less than ten people and its investment in machinery and
equipment does not exceed N600, 000 (Six Hundred Thousand Naira) are
referred to as SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES”.
Generally, the method used globally to measure the nature
of any business includes: number of employees; the volume of sales; the
financial strength or disposition, the relative size, initial capital outlay.
Other parameters used include among many ones – private independent ownership,
the type of such venture and relative companion between the business
understudying and other present ones or those in the recent past. Information
management is one of the parameters too. From the above definitions it is very
glaring that there is high rate of unemployment in Ugwunye with out
Small Scale Business to contain or offset the social problem. In a
logical sequence therefore, it is very necessary to highlight the problems that
are associated with the unemployment survey in ugwunye and probably proper
solutions to them. They are precisely put down below.
1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH
UNEMPLOYMENT SURVEY IN
1.2.1 ROAD NETWORK
As was mentioned in section 1.1 above Ugwunye is
made up of Egede and Affa Communities and geopolitically located towards North
West of Udi Local government Area of Enugu State. The location so to say places
it on a very disadvantaged position because it is not on the corridor of throughful
that joins the Northern and Southern Parts of Nigeria. This lack of proper road
network that connects to the main road stream makes road transport system
irregular and infrequent. Apart from proper connection to the road grid,
internal road network within ugwunye is inadequate and makes mobility impaired.
Consequently, most of the movements are done by bicycle or on foot.
LACK OF STATISTICS AND DATA
In Ugwunye development center there she no records or statistics or data banks
that one would refer to for a survey of this nature. It becomes very difficult
for one to gather any meaningful information with which to start or work upon.
1.2.3 LEVEL OF EDUCATION ON THE PART OF THE EXISTING
ENTREPRENEURS IN UGWUNYE:
Basically most of the existing small-scale enterprises in Ugwunye
are owned by people who are semi-illiterate and who do not keep proper records
and as such it is difficult to collect reliable pieces of information during
any survey or study.
1.3 THE PROBLEMS THAT THE
STUDY WILL BE CONCERNED WITH
1.3.1 THE EXTENT OF PRIVATE OWNERSHIP AND
Seventy five percent (75%) of the number of small scale ventures in Ugwunye are
privately owned and as such makes the unemployment problems multiple. If one of
the government agents like industrial development centers (IDCS) which were
related to make sure that small and medium scale enterprises which could not
employ highly skilled man power such as engineers, managers, and technical
staff are assisted in solving their operational problems as well as raising of
capital limited had make its impact within Ugwunye, the people could have been
in a better footing business wise. It is only in the areas of education and
health that the presence of Enugu State Government is partially felt because
such institutions lack proper management and organization.
1.3.2 THE SCOPE OF THE EXISTING SMALL SCALE BUSINESS
The scope or potential of the existing small-scale business in
Ugwunye is small that requires the attention of some governmental organizations
or non-governmental organizations to get improved upon in all the aspects
especially in funds and management and organizational outfits. In order to make
them sustainable as to employ enough people external intervention is a MUST.
1.4.0 THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEMS
AND SOLVING THEM THROUGH ESTABLISHMENT OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESSES IN
The proper primary arm of this study is to find out the extent or
level of unemployment in Ugwunye and proffer or suggest ways of controlling or
solving such problems by advising the government Non – Governmental
organizations on how best to achieve positive results. Again the existing and
functional enterprises could be enlightened on how best to maximize their
profit or where they fail them breakeven in their ventures. But before
embarking on the project proper, it is necessary to highlight the types of
unemployment in order to find out the one that most hits the area.
1.4.1 TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND THE ONES THAT MOST AFFECT UGWUNYE
There are four major types of unemployment as mentioned below:
a). Seasonal Unemployment
d). Cyclical Unemployment
The ones mentioned above are very general and could apply
everywhere in the world, but other ones and causes below apply to Nigeria and
more emphatically to Ugwunye Development Centre. They are:
(i) Seasonal Unemployment Arising from seasonal
farming in the area and semi-Arid nature of the soil texture because of its
(ii) Insecurity in people jobs and mass retrenchments
(iii) Influx of school leaves in the labour force.
(iv) Instability in polity and incessant movements of
people as a result of intertribal and religious squabbles. Because of the types
of unemployment as mentioned above the level of unemployment is very high
within the cordons of Ugwunye Local Government Development Centre made up of
Egede and Affa Communities.
OF SMALL-SCALE BUSINESSES OPERATING PRESENTLY WITHIN UWUNYE
Before enumerating the types and sizes of the
small scale Business in Ugwunye, it is very pertinent to mention here that
ninety percent (90%) of them are Not Registered with National Association for
small-scale industries some of the small-scale businesses in Ugwunye include:
(i) Farming which comprises crop and animal
husbandry (poultry and rearing of animal)
(ii) Wine tapping
(iii) Garn processing and production of cassava paste
(Akpu for fufu)
(iv) Carpentry and mesoning
(vi) Sideway restaurants
(vii) Trading on boiled bambla nuts, groundnuts
(viii) Radio and TV repairing and petty trading
Most of these businesses are so insignificant and can hardly
sustain the entrepreneurs. It is therefore, very important to X-ray the level
of unemployment, analyze the types of businesses available and come up with
pieces of advise to the individuals involved and make comprehensive suggestions
on how best to establish more functional and modern ones through the three
levels of Government and the NGOs in Nigeria.
1.5.0 DEFINITIONS OF SOME OF THE TERMS USED
1.5.1 UNEMPLOYMENT AND SMALL-SCALE BUSINESS
terms have been defined earlier.
an adjective derived from Geopolitics, which is the political relationship
between countries and groups of countries, states and toward communities in the
world. The study of the relations is also geopolitics in this context it is in
relation to the position of Ugwunye in Udi L.G.A in regard to politics and
geographical location of same – Ugwunye.
1.5.3 LABOUR FORCE it is all the people work for a company of
country. It is normally made up of skilled and unskilled manpower.
1.5.4 SEASONAL an event which varies with season is
seasonal. An occasion which happens is needed during a particular seasonal.
Hence seasonal unemployment.
UNEMPLOYMENT this is type
of unemployment based on arrangement of labour force. It is very noticeable in
classification of skilled labour force where some people could be put off
labour market because of the way jobs are arrayed in favour or disfavour of
others. Eg. Carpenters & Masons, Engineers and Architects.
maintains some degree of cycle such that it happens many times and repeatedly.
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