In the course of this research work, productivity is taken to mean the
relationship between the quantity of good produced to the quantity of resources
used. A more fruitful way to understand productivity is to consider it a
process. Thus Brech (1975) was of the view that productivity can be loosely
thought of as the continuing improvement of the firms management performance in
the use of resources and through the operations it is conducting.
However, for the purpose of this research work, the researcher highlights those
factors responsible for low productivity among the Nigerian workers. The
researcher tends to focus on those means that will be applied to get workers
committed to their work using effective motivational tools to enhance an
increase in the productivity level of the Nigerian workers while focusing on
the public sectors organization, N.E.P.A. Enugu zonal office as the study
scope. If the recommendation, findings are implemented, it will go a long way
in helping the employers of labour especially N.E.P.A. to motivate, encourage
her employee for greater productivity.
Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources, the analysis of
the data was carried out using the statistical method, it was under this study
that the researcher brought out a population sizes that he used to determine
the basis for the information gather and analyzed. The test of the data
The findings of the researcher observed by the help of questionnaires and
interviews embarked upon as regards factors responsible for this low
productivity are as follows:
The job evaluation system is being carried out in lazy and unfair manner.
The motivational tools and incentives were not properly provided to workers
which in the right scenes, it tends to be motivating workers into putting their
best t work but the reverse is the case.
These is the fear of job security among workers for fee of being left redundant
The workers experienced a shortage of their working facilities that ought to
have helped them in their productivity.
Working system in the country is not satisfactorily accepted by the workers due
to their act that their purchasing power is not guaranteed.
With this findings the
researcher then proffered recommendations that would eliminate these problems
or at least reduce it to the bearest minimum.
This recommendations tends to
Proper job evaluation so as to remove any biased feelings of evaluation
Provision of working facilities to aid workers in carrying out their jobs.
Provision of incentives and fringe benefit that has the ability to motivate
Training and development needs of workers.
Maintenance of discipline and
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background of the
Statement of the
Objective of the
Signification of the
Scope, Limitation and Delimitation
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Overview of Labour
Attributable Factors to Productivity
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Data Presentation and
Analysis of the Data
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Productivity in public organization as
well as in the private sector is simply the relationship between inputs and
outputs. Inputs are basically resources such as labour, materials and capital.
Outputs are such accomplishments as work done, products distributed or services
rendered. Thus in Nigeria, workers have been experiencing certain problem that
has been hindering their productivity level which has adversely affected Gross
The government is trying to see that productivity maintains an impressive level
created the ministry of labour, employment and productivity, National
productivity center etc. In order to help alleviate the problems of Nigerian
In view of these, one may genuinely ask, why is the Nigerian worker inherently
characterized by low productivity inspite of all government efforts to improve
The answer to this disturbing question is difficult but vital and will be
discussed extensively as we proceed into the study. Briefly we take a short
historical background of N.E.P.A which is a service organization in the public
sector and the researcher decides to chose it in over viewing the general
history of our present day NEPA would be incomplete if the old public work
department of government which in 1876 installed the first generating set in
Lagos is not mentioned.
In 1895, the preliminary investigation and planning were carried out by the
P.W.D (Public Works Department) in Lagos at a cost of N3,206,000 and it was
under the government of southern Nigeria in 1896 that the sum of N12,000 was
allocated for the former location of NEPA Headquarter in Lagos. Mr. T. poke was
the first Chief Electrical Engineer of this establishment which was known as
the Lagos Electricity supply.
In 1924, the system which hitherto operates the 1-phase 3-wire so cycle was
replaced with the 3-phase 4-wire 50 cycle which is still being maintained till
Consequently, 1929, a meter section was established to deal with the metering
of various consumers. In the establishment of these bodies there was dublicity
of function by the federal government. Both agencies were involved in generating
and transmitting electricity one sold to the other which then sells to the
public. The federal government decided to merge the two bodies this was done
during the budget speech of the then, head of Military government Major General
Yakubu Gowon in 1972, he declared that in the interest of affording the nation
a well coordinating system of electricity supply, the ECN and the NDA should
merge into a body to be known as National Electric Power Authority (NEPA). Thus
by Decree No. 24 of 1972, NEPA was established.
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR LOW
PRODUCTIVITY IN NEPA
Decree No. 24 of 1972 which established NEPA proclaimed that “it shall be the
duty of the authority to develop and maintain an efficient, co-ordinate and
economical system of electricity supply for all parts of the Federation or as
the authority may direct”. With this, the organization was established to
render services which is in line with aiding management in achieving its
objectives and fulfilling its policies. But there has been certain factors that
has posed as problems hindering the provision of adequate services to consumers
of electricity supply.
This problems can be sub-divided into two major headings, internal and external
The internal factors are those problems that are contributed by the staff of
the organization within their working environment and also those spelt out to
staff by management, they are as follows:
Lack of incentives schemes and fringe benefits.
Inadequate manpower utilization and training
Lack of good management practices
Policies in the organization concerning disciplinary measures, promotion etc.
These are faced with workers in
the organization depriving them of the ability to meet up to their customers
expectation in service rendering. We now look into the other problems that are
externally forge against the workers effective supply of services. They are:-
Low gas pressure and low water level in the running of the thermal and hydro
power stations respectively.
Indiscriminate bush burning
Theft and vandalization of NEPA equipment by unscrupulous persons.
Road construction workers damaging NEPA underground cables.
Careless and reckless motorists running into NEPA installations like
transformers. Sub-stations and even electric poles.
Inadequate fund for the rehabilitation of old and worn out equipments, or the
procurement of new ones when the need arises.
These were spelt out as what is
affecting workers in their bid to carry out their work effectively, thereby
weighing down productivity, thereby weighing down productivity increase in
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Studies has been carried out in Nigeria
regrettably, not much has been done in the way of solving the problems facing
Nigerian worker which has been detrimental on increased productivity that will
in no small way contribute to the development of a developing Nation likes
Therefore this research is aimed at treating those problems that are
particularly facing workers in public organization ranging from the junior
staff to management staff.
In order to foster increased productivity among workers in Nigeria with the
help of the study carried out in the National Electric Power Authority as a
guide, will in no small way enable us to find solutions to the following
problems stated below.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to discover
What ways to be applied to ensure workers commitment to work in order to foster
To investigate how effective the motivational methods, if any has played any
role in the bid to increase productivity of workers.
What should be done to increase the overall interest of workers to enhance
To closely look at those factors responsible for low productivity of workers.
To review the current operating standards of management and suggest if possible
any other standard that will be of great help in the task of stepping up
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this research will help to
adjust these problems that militates against productivity of workers in the
public sector of the economy and thus help to improve the image of the course.
The research will provide solutions to low productivity problem to aid increase
productivity level of workers which is considered the highest objective of
managers of organization. The research will as well provide for management the
needed sound background in theory, practice for implementing, organizing and
controlling of the affairs of the public sector.
It also will help NEPA management in dealing with its productivity problems and
serve as research material (secondary data) to future works that could be related
to the study.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To carry out this research effectively a
number of related questions concerning the attitude of workers to improve their
working attitudes were prepared. The following question were being used to acquire
the necessary information’s on the study.
What are those factors responsible for workers low productivity?
What will encourage a worker to work diligently and put his best at work?
What type of working environment helps to facilitate a worker when carrying out
Does management style of leadership affects workers productivity?
What additional incentives motivate a worker to increase his productivity
STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis has been adduced as possible responses to the
questions poised earlier.
Hypothesis 1 –
Lack of instrumentality in the Nigerian working system is not responsible for
low productivity in NEPA.
Hypothesis II –
Lack of instrumentality in the Nigerian working system is responsible for low
productivity in NEPA.
Motivated (satisfied) workers would not do their work to meet the
Motivated (satisfied) workers will do their work to meet the organizational
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
In the course of going through this work some key words and phrases which are
very vital, has been explained below for better understanding.
is the ratio between outputs and all resources used in production.
LOW PRODUCTIVITY: Inadequate
productivity or mainly low level of production.
The provision of electricity current.
The generated electricity for domestic use.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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