TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6 Research Question
1.7 Definition of Terms
2.1 Literature Review
2.2 Brief History of Co-Operative in Nnewi – North
2.3 Self – Reliance and Co – Operative Development
2.4 The Evolution of Modern Co – Operatives
2.5 Nigerian Co-Operatives and Small Scale Enterprise
2.6 Financing of Co-Operatives
2.7 Internal and External Sources of Funds
3.1 Research Methodology
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Data Collection Method
3.4 Population of the Study
3.5 Sample of the Study and Sampling Techniques
3.6 Validity and Reliability
Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.1 Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
4.2 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of Findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The subject, self – reliance and small scale enterprise is a topical one and becomes even so when allied with the co-operatives. This is because there is continuity decrease of resources, particularly of the third world. There is constant search for all sorts of models, including the co-operatives to deal with small and large scale firms.
In this research, all efforts are made to explain the concept and development of self – reliance with special reference to the co-operatives societies. The performance of the co-operatives in the attainment of set objectives, the problems encountered and the prospects for the future.
Self reliance is an expression, which has overtime generated a lot of interest and has become conceptually and practically, attractive, particularly in developing countries wresting with the economic forces of meeting numerous needs with limited resources.
A former Nigeria head of state and presently Nigeria president once stated; “while it is the day of tee government to ensure that our production capacity is qualitatively and quantitatively improved, the citizen too must retrieve their taste buds for those things we do not produce (Obasanjo, 1978).
Self- reliance is one of those euphemist’s terms bonded about like bridging the gap, meeting basic needs and eco – development in the international efforts to reduce world hunger, diseases, unemployment and general poverty.
The topic was generated a lot of interest among writers and is defined as “the ability to use one’s own forces”
As government job witness contraction in the face of present economic circumstance and employment as well as salaries diminished, and all these being accompanied by inflationary tendencies self – employment is now considered the vogue for sustainable existence nowadays. The retrenched, unemployed, retired including those who resigned from salaried job, now look up to self – employed as the only saving grace.
Private enterprise, especially indigenous small scale firms have a vital role to pray in promoting the social and economic well being of the nation. Hence indigenous entrepreneurship is likely to be much more importance in small scale business than in large scale firms. The promotion of small business is a well recognized and much more heralded strategy of industrial development in – developing countries and managerial skills.
Increased productivity, national income, market leadership, gigantic technological innovative of and sagacity of Japan, America and other developed countries are based on the foundation held by small – scale industries. Although, economic activities of developed and developing countries are sometimes viewed to be eliminated by large scale business such as coca – cola, Toyota, Honda, UAC, John Holt, etc. however, it is important to note that the present day giant companies were once small scale industries which grew over the years to become giant companies.
It is true that Nigerians are not new to small scale enterprise. However, economic depression had widened the horizon of such enterprise.
In view of the impact of small scale industries in improving the socio – economic conditions of a nation, most developed and developing countries have made initiatives to promote indigenous enterprise. In Nigeria for example typical action of the government take form of policy initiatives and directives to organization such as ministry of commerce, national directorate of employment (NDE), ministry of labour and productivity, centre for management and development, research institutes are to ct as executing agencies with responsibility for stimulating and sustaining entrepreneurship development also, various polytechnics and universities now run various entrepreneurship development programmes aimed at impacting the skills to potential industrialists
In Nigeria and worldwide, there is no specific definition of small scale business. Different authors, scholars authorities and schools have different ideas is to what a small business is, for instance. The US Committee for Economic Development (C.E.D) has developed the following definitions of a small scale business.
A small scale business is one which possesses at least two of the following four characteristic:
1. Management usually the mangers are also the owners.
2. Capital is supplied and ownership is held by individual or small group.
3. The area of operation is mainly local
4. The relative size of the firm within its industries must be small when compared with the biggest firms in its field.
The third national development plan defined small business as A manufacturing establishment employing less than ten people or whose investment in machinery and equipment do not exceed six hundred thousand naira (600, 00.00).
In Nigeria, the definition varies from time to time and forms various organizations. For example the central banks of Nigeria in its 1996 monetary policy guideline defined small scale business as an enterprise whose total cost exchanging of land bet including working capital does not exceed
The national economic reconstruction fund (NFR Fund) put their ceiling for
small scale business total investments at
The government small scale industry development in 1980 defined small scale business in Nigeria as “any manufacturing process or services industry with a capital investment not exceeding N150, 000 in manufacturing and equipment alone”
But for the purpose of the research, small scale business shall be defined as “Business whose scale of operation is less than the average of the industry”.
Co – operatives is as old as man himself when Adam was created, God did appreciate Adam’s problem – LONELINESS – he consequently created Eve as a partner to enable Adam break up their relationship of loneliness and isolation.
Co – operation has started before many living things like animals insect etc were created. The lives of some of these living things are exciting and entertaining to watch for example the weather bird. They build their nests jointly and they also live together in harmony. The same is true of bees, ants, monkeys, loins etc the statement that “No man is an island” is very important to this claim.
The term co-operative has been defined in various ways by various authors in various disciplines and their definitions are as follows:
Akanji et al (2000) in his book, co-operative field administration emphasize co-operative as a natural urge of man. He further states that it is an organization of people with common felt need and joint effort.
Okonkwo in his book, introduction to the study of co-operative defines co-operative society as a voluntary association of free and independent persons for the betterment of their economic condition.
Ejiofor (1989) as indicated by Babalola (1997) defines co-operative as an association of persons faced by the same economic problems who voluntarily pull their resources on equality through joint effort and material participation to remedy their plight.
Culvert (1959) defines co- cooperative as a form of organization where persons associate together as human beings on the basis of equality for the production of the economy of themselves.
Also co-operative is a type of business firm which has three distinguishing characteristics:
i. A co-operative is owned and controlled by it members– customers on a democratic basis. Each member usually has one vote, but in some cases votes are allocated to members on the basis of patronage.
ii. It differs from other business in the manner in which surplus earning are distributed. The net margin over cost is returned to customer in proportion to their patronage and not in proportion to the capital investment.
iii. Membership in a co-operative is voluntary are organized to serve the needs of their members.
Many authors have defined co-operative from different perspective, but one common feature of all the definitions is the voluntaries of free and independent persons teaming together for the purpose of pursuing a common goal.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The aim of some individuals is to be self employed. For this dream to be realized, the research study is aimed at highlighting the problems that occur in making these dreams a reality. The current problems that are experienced are lack of adequate capital, provision of infrastructural facilities, liability to relevant information when needed, lack of proper orientation etc.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study is designed to examine the impact of co-operative societies in promoting self – reliance and small scale enterprise with special focus on Nnewi – North.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be of immense benefits to self employee’s potential industrialists and student that want to be self – employed in impacting the skill needed. The finding will be of benefit in promoting the social and economic will being of the nation.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study primarily examines the impact of co-operative societies in promoting self- reliance and small scale enterprise in Nnewi North Local Government Area only.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. Is there any relationship between co- operative society and self – reliance?
ii. Is there any relationship between co-operative society and small – scale enterprise?
iii. Do co – operator derive any benefits from their dealings with co-operative societies?
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Co-operative Society: This is defined as the voluntaries of free and independent persons teaming together for the purpose of pursuing a common goal.
Self – Reliance: The ability to use one’s own forces.
Small Scale Business: This is defined as business whose scale of operation is less than the average of the industry.
Private Enterprise: Is defined as an organization that is owned, financed and managed by a person without government interference.
Self – employment: The ability of one to rely largely upon its own physical, economic and social potentials, so as to achieve the goal he / she set for himself/ herself.
Development: This is defined as a process by which a high degree of self- reliance in economic growth in a given community of a country is sustained over a long period of time or with a substantial reduction in poverty, unemployment and socio - economic injustice.
Developing Countries: This is a country / countries with low economic development, which is measured by per capital income in industrialization and technological advancement.