ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF POST HARVEST LOSS AMONG LEAFY VEGETABLE MARKETERS IN UTESE, OVIA NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE
This study examine the economic analysis of post harvest losses among leafy vegetable marketers in Utese, Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State in achieving this, specific objectives were spelt out to examine the socio-economic characteristics of green vegetable marketers in the study area. Estimate the physical losses of green vegetable during marketing. Determine the financial value of these losses of green vegetables. Identify the causes of the losses during marketing. Determine the effect of post harvest sellers. From the objective above, primary data were used to accomplish the study. From the result many marketer encounter the problem of finance due to high level of interest and demand from the bank. Some of the problems of poor handling of their vegetables. It is therefore recommended that government, money lender should create easy access to the farmers, proper information should be given to marketers and producers on how to handle harvested vegetable.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the study
Statement of problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Limitation of the study
Definition of terms
Population of the study
Sample of the study
Validity and Reliability of instrument
Method of data analysis
Analysis and discussion of results
Vegetable are highly perishable except under intensive care during harvest, handling and transportation. There can also be losses in quality as measured both by the price obtained and the nutritional values as well as in quantity. Farmers are forced to sell their products at give away prices due to absence of adequate storage income goes to the waste bins.
Estimate of production losses in developing countries are usually very hard to come by. Post harvest losses in vegetable in Africa countries have been estimated to about 50% of the total production food and agricultural organization implies that half of the total production are lost during storage handling and transportation of their produce. Therefore minimizing these losses to a large extent between harvest and consumption of already produced food is more sustainable than increasing production (Kader and Roll, 2004).
Post harvest losses are caused by mechanical injuries, inadequate storage, unsuitable handling, faculty system of transport and delayed transportation in retail market. Green vegetable refer to all leafy vegetable predominantly green in colour which can be eaten boiled or in soups. They have achieved tremendous popularity over the last century among local trader. Besides being tasty the green vegetables as they are good source of vitamin A and C. they are low calories and fasts, high in protein per calories, dietary, fibre, iron and calcium. They have a very short life span. They have high economic value.
A very little is known about the production and consumption pattern of Africa leafy vegetable. The FAO/WHO consultation on diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases (2003) recommended a minimum daily intake of fruit and vegetables of proper functioning. Emphasis should therefore be laid, not only on increased production of vegetables but also on ways to minimize these post harvest losses so as to bridge the gap existing in the recommended requirement.
In order to ensure good quality vegetable with high economic and marketable potentials, certain question must be addressed;
The general objective of the study is to estimate the physical losses and corresponding financial value of post harvest losses in green vegetable in Utese town, Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.
The specific objectives of the study are to;
Since vegetable plays a great role in the body and in the society, and green vegetable “promote healthy nutritional balance as they are good sources of vitamin A and C”, therefore the method of producing them should be a relevant subject to the studied and also to the marketer and consumers. It is hoped that the information obtained from this study will help government and policy makers to address the problem of economic analysis of post harvest losses among leafy vegetable marketers and its uses for consumers.
THE PROBLEM AND PROSPECT OF PEASANT FARMING IN EDO STATE: A CASE STUDY OF UHUNMWONDE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
This project work is designed to find out appraisal of problems and prospect of peasant farming in Uhunmwonde Local Government Area of Edo State. During the study, data was collected through the use of questionnaire and oral interview. Questionnaires were distributed. In this, to examine the problems of peasant farmers, on how to go about the problems, to examine the prospect of peasant farming. The various problem hindering the effectiveness or growth of peasant farmers in Uhunmwonde Local Government Area of Edo State are identified in this study, such as land tenure system, inadequate capital, transportation problems, inadequate farm input, problem of storage facilities etc. the research methodology include the use of questionnaire and oral interview, which were administered to farmers and student. Some recommendations and solution to the problem hindering the effectiveness of farmers in Uhunmwonde local government area of Edo State such as provision of storage facilities, adequate land distribution policy as well as proper land planning. Reorganization of extension workers in communities.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Agriculture has been the basic of very civilization for thousands of years, due to food goods it produces, its capacity to harness natural resources and forming landscape. The social relationship it builds around (in particular control over land). More than any other activity, agriculture fuels the imagination and forges peoples cultures, so care is needed when considering the evolution of agriculture. Peasant farming is a localized system of agricultural farming usually operated on a small piece of land. This type of farming is practice in poor communities, since the farmers do not have enough capital. It is concerned with the provision of t he basic needs of the family. Farming activities are carried out without the use of machine rather crude implements are used such as cutlass, hoe, spade etc., the farmer also relies on and operates with family labour, the total yield from the farm is usually low where there is little or no excess or surplus for sale or capital investment.
This type of agriculture is mostly practiced by peasant farmers and cost of production is very low. The practice provides direct employment for many people since machines are not used. It also makes the environment to be free from pollution and there is also less danger of environment degradation. In Uhunmwonde local government area vast majority of farmers are still peasants who farms small plot of land, usually in marginal environment utilizing traditional and subsistence methods for their consumption because it is associated with low capital for production use of crude implement. These farmers live in rural area and are poor in nature hence their standard of living is low. Despite of these characteristics, peasant farming system has vital role to play in agricultural sector. So solutions therefore must be found for empowering peasants to deal with such problems.
It is also associated with the problems of land ownership, soil type, availability of inputs and availability of manpower thereby discouraging the hope of large scale production among the farmers, and farm products among the farmers and mainly subsistence as a result of this, the farmers cannot meet up with their standards. The main purpose of this study was to identify solution to deal with challenges facing peasant farming system in Uhunmwonde local government, Edo State.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
In this project work attempt was made to find out the appropriate measure to adopt to carefully identified the problems and prospect of peasant farming in the area of study. The researcher examined some of the following problems.
Why is productivity low in Uhunmwonde local government area?
What are the steps taken so far either by government or individuals to increase farm productivity in the area of study?
What is the type of farming system practice by these people in the locality?
What is the cause of low-standard of living of the people?
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of the study includes the following:
To investigate the various problems of peasant farming in Uhunmwonde local government area.
To look into how peasant farming affects the people in the locality.
To find possible situation to the problems and give some possible recommendation of enhancing peasant farming in the area of study.
As a farmer what type of farming method would you employ?
Do farmers in your area have access to financial assistance to carry out large scale farming?
What is your occupation?
Are there problems of in accessible road in your area?
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work covers Uhunmwonde local government area. The village in the area of studies are:
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
A lot of benefits are derived from this study. Firstly, the local farmers in the area of study will be aware of agricultural production.
Secondly, the general public who are interested in agricultural activities will also be aware of the farming in the area of study, this will help them to show positive attitude to farming.
Thirdly, this project work will help the agricultural policy making body to focus attention in their area of priority.
Finally, this project work will also help the agricultural policy making body to play an important roles in the need to improve subsistence farming to a large scale mechanized farming.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Peasant farming: This means farming mainly made for consumption with little or no left for sales and usually done on a small scale of land. It is concerned with the provision of basic need of the family.
Crude Implements: These are implement use to carry out work in a small piece of farm land, they are also known as simple farm tools e.g. cutlass, here, spade shovel etc. this type to tools are mostly use by peasant farmers because of the size of their land.
Commercial farming: This is the type of farming that is done on a large scale. Most of its operations are usually mechanized and it has high yield. Few labourers are required on the farm hence it can lead to unemployment. This type of farming is very expensive in terms of money, skilled labour and management. It is mostly practice by rich farmers.
Land tenure system: Land tenure is the relationship whether legally or customarily defined among people as individuals or groups with respect to land. Land tenure may also be described as a set of property relationship between two, it means the holding of land and the term tenant include owners, lessees and other occupiers of the land. It also means the right to hold property.