The continued decline in productivity government parastatals despite huge financial and material resources invested in them has been a matter of concern to all well meaning Nigerians. This has in its part contributed to the economic crisis which the country is currently facing. This research work is designed to look into the motivational aspect of the work environment and its relative effect on productivity in these parastatals.
Some how workers in the public sectors of the economy are no effectively motivated into increasing their productivity and this has a major factor in contributing to the decline in productivity and subsequently to the present condition of the economy. these it is the purpose of the study to investigate the assumptions as stated in the hypothesis.
The data used for this research were collected mainly through the use of questionnaire. These questionnaires were positioned in various cadres of workers in the Imo State hospital manageemnt board in all the three (3) zones of the state. The data collected were analyzed by percentage and chi-square statistical methods the findings of the research are:
1. That a fairly good majority of workers in these parastatals are happy with their job
2. That the management of these parastatals does not pay worker nor reward staff for putting more effort in their job
3. That majority of the workers opted for promotion salaries recognition high payment of wages/salaries as the major conditions for them to increase their productivity
4. The management of the parastatals virtually make no effort to recognize and compensate workers.
5. That sponsored training programme in the parastatals are few
6. That very good inter-relationship exist among the worker.
7. That 96 percent of workers affirmed to the fact that if they are compensated affectively they will increase their productivity.
8. That the inherent problem of financial benefits and welfare especially has covered the standard of living of the workers.
Finally the recommendations suggested to help alleviate the problem areas are:
1. The employers should device an effective and efficient means of paying the worker the various benefits and care fro welfare
2. The motivational factors like promotion increase in salaries and recognition should be used as means of gingering the workers into increase performance.
3. That recognition and appropriate financial reward should be given to workers who put in more effort on the job
4. That the management of the parastatals should increase their sponsored training programme as its tool of increasing productivity
5. That the management of the parastalats should do everything possible to maintain the work environment
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 A brief historical background of the Imo state health management board
1.2 Statements of problem.
1.3 Research questions
1.4 Purpose/ significant of the study
1.5 Assumptions of the study
1.6 limitation of the study
1.6 Definition of terms
2.0 Literature review
2.1 The concept of motivation
2.2 What is motivation
2.3 Definition of motivation
2.4 The importance of motivation
2.5 Theories of motivation
2.6 The concept theories
i. Douglas H. gregor’s theories x and Y
ii. Abraham H Maslow’s need of hierarchy theory
iii. Fredrick Herzberg’s two factor theory
iv. David Mc cleland needs theory of motivation
v. C.P Alerfer’s era theory of motivation
vi Elton mayo’s human relations theory of motivation
vii. The equity theory
2.5.2 other motivation factor
i. The expectancy theory
ii. Summary of literature review
3.0 Research design & methodology
3.1 Data selection
3.2 Determination of sample size
3.3 Sources of data
3.4 Methods of data analysis
4.0 Finding and analysis of data
5.0 Summary of research finding
Appendix I letter of authority
Appendix II questionnaires
There is clearly and widely accepted belief that the economy of this counting is weak. This has in effect caused such as untold economic hardship to the populace, such that has never been experienced in the history of Nigeria since its independence. It is an acknowledged view that the economy of the entire world is undergoing recessional period. This is much noticeable and hard- feet in the third world countries of which Nigeria is one.
Nigeria is much up of thirty- six (36) state and Abuja as the federal Capital territory (FTC) and she practices mixed economy ideology system. This is an inheritance from her colonial masters. This resulted to her economic structure in relation to ownership of factors of production being divided into sectors. Earlier before the outset of the third commendable and the standard of living was fairly high, as the purchasing power of our currency was also high. The factors that led into the buoyancy were the revenue that was constantly earned from the sales of crude oil.
The second factor was that the nation’s agricultural productivity was also higher than what is obtainable now. Some of the resultant effect of high flow of revenue from crude oil was that people became reluctant to work and displayed a great deal of non- chalet attitude towards the continuation of their agriculture and small sale industrial operations. This subsequently led to a decrease in productivity of goods and services. It further resulted in an increased dependence on imported oil. Thus, there existed a great disparity between our foreign exchange earnings and our expenditure of which the later was greater.
The emergence of the oil, glut, made it clear that Nigerian’s economy is hanging on a balance. This situation led to the introduction of the structural Adjustment programmes other wise known as ‘SAP’ by the Babangide administration. This was designed to help bring the rumblings economy its shape. The main strategy here is to reduce the rush for foreign goods, increase production locally and to restructure the entire economy to operate at a greater degree of indecency from foreign influence. The role of effective management of financial, material and human resources cannot therefore be underestimated as one of the means of achieving these economic goals. The government is doing her best through viable policy plans and strategies to influxes substantial materials and financial resources of the two arms in production and ultimate economic stability.
On the note, its very important to recognize that for economic growth to be achieved, full and effective consideration must be given to the well being of the individual workers that required to carryout their respective activities in the economic system. When workers are being taken care of, there is the tendency for increased productivity. If productivity increases, there will be the urge for generating more revenue (that is profit) from taxes to the government. Undertaking higher motivational programmes on the individual workers can only do this as it effects human resources management among other factors of production.
It is the objectives of the study to examine the extent if positive effect that could be achieved through effective motivational programmes on productivity unique semi- independent government sector called prostates.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is an ‘Igbo’ adage which says that ‘a collectively owned goat starves to death’. But why? This adage goes to explain the differences that have been existing in efficiency, effectiveness and productivity between the private owned and government establishments.
The main functional area of these parastatals is centered on provision of services of various types such as healthcare, information dissemination, electricity supply and so on. Competition between these private organizations that offer the same services in the parastatals and the parastatals themselves therefore exists.
People seems to patrnize private sectors than the public sectors, Reasons, being that the private sectors that offer similar services are more efficient and also offer them with keen interest. Typical examples are a situation where people patronize private owned hospitals. The question now is ‘why do people drift away from patronizing public set up.’?
A caused interview confirmed some serious complaints by the members of the public over the uncaring and non-chalet attitudes of these government hospital workers.
Conversely, a very close fact finding investigation within the workers confirmed these allegation further questioning as to why workers behave that way, gave the investigator these impressions and they include the following;
- High degree of frustration and stigma in the work place.
- Wrong timing in administration of salaries, wages and fringe benefits and other various ills that have befallen the workers which involve bribery, corruption, inefficiency and ultimately downward plunging of productivity which would continue unless something is done to remedy these problems.
1.3 RESEACH QUESTIONS.
-Is motivation really a means of achieving the desired result in an organization?
- Dose it mean that effectiveness of production depends on the motivated factors of employees?
- Has efficiency be improved since some motivated system was introduced?
1.4 PURPOSE / SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
The basic motive of this study is to find out the role which effective motivational programmes have played in the continues decrease in productivity in government parastatals, despite that the government has from time to time invested a substantial amount of financial, material and human resources in them.
Furthermore, the purpose of this study is also to look into the internal components of these human resources with special reference to the motivational efforts made by the management for the workers which will ultimately determine their behavior and attitude to work. The efficient and effective utilization of mind and motivation.
Lab our is the most sensitive factor of production. It is human and it needs substantial economic, social and spiritual support to survive. Therefore, it is important to observe the efficient success and survival of other factors of production and the organization as a whole.
The ultimate achievement of goals and objectives of an organization is to maximize profit with the available lab our given them the required thins to motivate them.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
The main reason why this research is carried out in wider perspectives is the researcher’s concern over the wider spread outcry by the entire populace of this country over the present state of the economy. In the light of this, both individuals and governments towards reviving the determine are making various efforts and sacrifices are being made by both individuals and governments towards reviving the deteriorating economy.
Psychologically, people’s attitude towards work desire for personal betterment and achievement, and confidence in future, affects a nation’s economic growth by learning what kind of attitude and motivations people have on the kind of effect upon economic behavior and status.
Therefore, high productivity is a vital component of a growing economy and all avenues must be exploited towards achieving this objective.
The need for the study therefore, becomes stronger and consequently concentrates on the desire to find out how and to what extent effective motivational programmes could help in making workers to increase their productivity.
1.5 ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY
Low productivity could be traced to be caused by many economic variables such as lackadaisical attitude of the workers, which would be due to lack of motivation.
Hence the researcher assumes the following;
- That through adequate budgetary, allocations and subsidies these parastatals are provided with adequate financial resources.
- That the government makes every effort to provide all the material resources required to maintain the efficient and effective functioning of these parastatals.
- That the lab our –factor component of the parastatals are knowledgeable, skilled and experienced enough and that their job allocations are unique with their personal potentials.
- That the public will be willing to patronize these parastatals if they were assured of adequate and efficient services commensurate with the value of their income expended for such services.
1.6 DEFFINITION OF TERMS.
1) MOTIVATION: This is an individual’s inner state that causes the person to behave in a way that ensures the accomplishment of some goals.
2) MANAGEMENT: Is the process of reaching the organizational goal by working with and through people and other organizational resources.
3) MOTIVATION STRENTH: This is an individual’s degree of desire to perform a behavior.
4) MOTIVATION FACTORS: These are the set of items that influence the degree of job satisfaction.
5) ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS: This refers to the degree to which the organization accomplishes its objectives.
6) PRODUCTIVITY This is the relating of input to output to defect whether the organization is moving forward or not.
7) EQUITY: This is the right an ordinary shareholder has to the share in the profit of the organization.
8) RESEARCH: This is part of the company’s activities concerned with discovering new products for the company and for making technical improvements in existing ones.
9) HERARCHY OF NEEDS: By maslow’s ‘state of Human Needs’ he described hierarchy of needs as the arrangement of human needs in an order in which individuals generally strive to satisfy themselves. And these needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance as follow;
Physiological needs security, Security needs social, social needs Esteem, and Esteem needs Self- actualization.
10) ORGANIZATION: This is the act of integrating and co-coordinating the efforts of different individual and gives purpose to there efforts in terms of objectives to be accomplished.