This research project is a very crucial study for the effective
management of waste disposal is Enugu urban. This study was motivated as a
result of the adverse effects of undisposal and improperly managed solid waste
on the environment and health of the people.
To solve the problem, both primary and secondary data were
collected. The research instruments used in collection of the data were
questionnaire, oral interview and personal observation. The respondents
comprises of 200 ENSEPA officers. In organizing and presentation of data
collected, tables and percentages were used. Various hypotheses were tested
using Chi-square test.
Data analysis and interpretation give the following findings:
Effective management of solid waste needs
a lot of money, which is beyond the capacities of ENSEPA
Also the urban environmental regulations
control as it affects solid waste management has been more theoretical than
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1General background to the subject matter
1.2 Problem associated with the subject matter
1.3 Problem that the study will be concerned with
1.4 The importance of studying the area
1.5 Definition of important terms
1.0 Literature Review
2.1 The Origin of the subject
2.2 The school of thought within the subject area of
2.3 The school of thought relevant to the problem of
2.4 Different methods of studying the problem
3.1 Data presentation
(Highlights of the study)
3.2 Analysis of the data
1.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND
There were efforts, some of them commendable made at various times, in Enugu to
improve the environmental and atmospheric conditions of the different part of
the capital city. These have include the clearing of the city of large amounts
of refuse site and dumps indiscriminately located within living abodes, which
blocked several access routes.
This has opened up some of the area, provided access to part of the city litter
to block and also more open spaces for recreation. All this efforts failed the
test of time by not sustaining the search for a clean city. Therefore, Afuabi
in his write up in the National Concord described these “attempts as mainly
cosmetic and that the characteristic of under-development seemed to be the
prevalence of urban slum and rural squalor”
To deal with the situation the 1976 local government reform assigned specifically
the functions of maintaining and promoting environmental health to the local
councils. This was a view to finding a means of solving the problem of
environmental decay within the urban center in particular. Inspite of this
provision, refuse disposal within the urban center of Enugu remained a problem.
Enugu Local Government lacked the required assigned functions. Admolekum, put
in vividly this. “ This list of Local Government Functions could be
impressive whilst the financial and human resources necessary for effective
performance are grossly inadequate”. There was continuous decline in the
sanitary condition of the capital city.
In 1984, the government of Anambra State before division established the task
force on Works, Housing, vehicle and Environmental Sanitation.
This was an ad-hoc body, which was military in character and
operation and therefore, depended on the application of task force to achieve
its objective. The taskforce instituted penalties such as times paid on whips.
Compliance with sanitation regulation was with “immediate effect,” hence, the
unconditional acceptance by the people to pay the required levies what
sustained the operations of the taskforce. Under the situation of fear and
force compliance with sanitation regulation, the solution to the problem of
decay and squalor, particularly as it related to refuse disposal within Enugu
was a temporary basis and might not be sustained nor might it stand the test of
the time, in the light of this fact as indicated by Obasi in his contribution.
The Anambra State Government later decided to establish a more permanent organ
whose mandate would span not only the immediate challenge of ensuring a clean
environment but also the long term task of inculcating in the public a heightened
and enduring sense of sanitary consciousness.
The efforts to achieve an effective waste disposal management in Enugu Urban
notwithstanding, the issue of refuse disposal in Enugu Urban continued to pose
enormous problems. The researcher therefore decided to carryout a study in
order to find out why these problems have persisted in spite of the efforts and
strategies that have been employed.
1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER
The management of solid waste particularly has been facing a great
problem. There has been the general lack of equipment and exodus of
well-trained personnel required for the job. Another problem has been the
demolition of built up refuse deposits. There was also lack of refuse disposal
vehicle such as closed refuse trucks and open tippers. The heavy equipment such
as Bulldozer and pail-loaders required for the maintenance of the final
disposal site were also lacking. However, where they exist, many of them are
either old or broken down, moreover, the vehicles and heavy equipment that are
in order have often been diverted to un-official uses by some field official.
There was also the issue of refuse workers not being properly
deployed while the payment of their salaries were most often delayed even for
Most importantly, there has been lack of adequate finance, which
affected all the facets of the operation of Enugu State Environmental
Protection Agency in Enugu. Onwumelu put this fact in perspective when he said,
“the task of maintaining an Environment free of filth cannot be achieved unless
there was fund”.
There is also the need for the basic infrastrutural support and
equipment or tools.
1.3 PROBLEM THAT THE STUDY WILL BE CONCERNED WITH
The study is centered on the operation of the Enugu State
Environmental Protection Agency. Specifically, the study deals with urban waste
disposal in Enugu Urban. It is not concerned with the collection of hazardous
or toxic waste, which may also be generated within an urban center given the
multiple occupations of Enugu for both residential and commercial/industries
Also the concern of the study is to investigate the problem of
Enugu urban waste disposal and management by Enugu State Environmental
This research work was faced with a lot of constraints that made
the research to skip certain vital and relevant areas.
These constraints include:
1. Finance and
Time Constraints: due to
lack of finance and time which is not at the researcher’s disposal, the
research work was limited to only Enugu metropolis.
attitude of the respondents: some
of the respondents refused bluntly to be interviewed while others returned
their questionnaires blank, may be they thought their responses would reprimand
them without being mindful of their earlier assurance that their responses
would be treated with the strictest confidence.
3. Scarcity of comprehensive literature:
Due to the scarcity of related literatures, it was not very easy
for the researcher to lay hand on enough information that is relevant to this
1.4 THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING THE AREA
The study is primarily undertaken with the aim of providing some
level of information to government, urban development and ENSEPA, which serves
as a case study. This study will assist the management of the ENSEPA in making
comprehensive review of its waste management policy and strategies.
It is important as a basis for further research on the management
of urban waste disposal on how effective is the disposal operation of ENSEPA,
as well as how adequate are the equipment at this disposal of ENSEPA for its
operation in Enugu and the required funds for the operation of ENSEPA provided.
1.5 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS
Proper disposal of waste:
provision made for collection of these waste at a regular interval.
Street of dirty
Material or substance that is unwanted because the good part of them has been
Waste material that has been thrown away.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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