SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDY OF RHYCHOPHORUS PHOENICS LARVA IN EDO/DELTA
The study was embarked upon to investigate the socio-economic indices of producers (farmers), processors, marketers and consumers of Rhynchophorus Phoenicis (Edible worm) in some selected communities in Edo and Delta State. The study was the descriptive survey type of research design. The main instrument used for data collection in the study was the focus group discussion and the research questionnaire Analysis of data collected revealed that Rhynchophorus Phoenicis was highly accepted and consumed as a delicacy and as a substitute for fish and meat in their diets. Quite a number of people are involved in its farming, processing and marketing as a means of livelihood or the main source of income. It was also revealed that, its farming and marketing is more lucrative than my similar consumables like pork meat and suya. The farmers limits include basic edible worm production, preservation and processing techniques and to the consumers, the high cost of processed edible worm. Based on the findings, it was recommended that enabling policies and programmes be initiated and implemented to attract new comers into its farming in this era of high rate of unemployment in the country.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter One – Introduction
Socio-economic study of Rhynochophorus Phoneninics
Scope of the study
Justification of the study
Objectives of the study
Chapter Two – Review of Related Literature
Common names of edible worm
Location and isolation
Rhynochophorus Phoneninics larve supply chain
Economic value of Rhynochophorus Phoneninics larva
Rhynochophorus Phoneninics sustainability
Processing of Rhynochophorus Phoneninics larvae
Factors affecting the quality/utilization of Rhynochophorus Phoneninics
Poor preservative measures
Poor processing techniques
Solutions to the above problems
Rhynochophorus Phoneninics as a source of nutrients
Insects as a multiplier of nutrients
Chapter Three – Materials and Methods
Issues for focus group discussion
Flow chart of edible worm
Chapter Four – Data Presentation and Analysis
Presentation, analysis and discussion of results
Focus group discussion results
Chapter Five – Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Common names of edible worm among different ethnic groups
Table 2.2 Proximate composition of Rhynchophorus Phoenicis
Table 2.3 fatty acid composition of Rhynchophorus Phoenicis
Table 2.4 reported oil value for aquatic sources
Table 2.5 reported oil value for legumes
Table 2.6 Amino acid composition
Table 2.7 Mineral composition of Rhynchophorus Phoenicis
Table 4.10 Sex of respondents
Table 4.11 Age brackets of respondents (Harvesters)
Table 4.12 Marital status of respondents (Harvesters)
Table 4.13 Educational level of respondents
Table 4.14 years in edible worm farming
Table 4.15 Edible worm processing
Table 4.16 level of acceptance of edible worm
Table 4.17 Economic contribution of edible worm
LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 1 Supply chain of edible worm
Figure 2 bar chart showing sex of respondents
Figure 3 bar chart showing sex of processors/marketers
Figure 4 bar chart show sex of consumers
Figure 5 Age of harvesters
Figure 6 Age of processors/marketers
Figure 7 Age of consumers
Figure 8 Marital status of respondents (Harvesters)
Figure 9 Marital status of consumers
Figure 10 Educational level of respondents
Figure 11 Number of years in edible worm farming
Figure 12 Number of years in edible worm
Figure 13 Method of processing
Figure 14 Level of acceptance of edible worm
Figure 15 Food value of edible worm
Figure 16 consumers of edible worm
Figure 17, 18, 19 Economic value of edible worm
Figure 20 Income generated from sale of edible worm
LIST OF PLATES
Plate 1 Raphia palm
Plant 2 Findings/Harvesting of edible worm
Plate 3 Method of harvesting edible worm
Plate 4 Edible worm
Plate 5 Boiled edible worm
Plate 6 Processing of edible worm
Plate 7 Processing of edible worm
Plate 8 Processing of edible worm
Plate 9 Sale of edible worm
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDY OF RHYNCHOPHORUS PHOENICIS (EDIBLE WORM)
Rhynchophorus Phoenicis larva is a maggot stage of the African palm weevil (Rhynchophorus Phoenicis) it is the second stage of the common complete metamorphosis of the life cycle of the African weevil. It belongs to the group of insects. Insects, generally has played a well known role in the diet of both human and animals nutrition from the inception of life on earth (Defoliant, 1992 and Aiyesami, 1999).
Some important group of insects includes grasshoppers, caterpillars, beetle, beetle grubs (such as meal worms), termites, bees, ant larvae and pulpae others include cicades and a variety of aquatic insects, crickets (Gordon et al, 1998). Evidence has been found analyzing coprolites from caves ion USA and Mexico. Coprolites in caves in the Ozark Mountains were found to contain ants, beetle larvae, lice, ticks, and mites (Way, et. al., 2004). This is not unexpected, and there are some deep evolutionary precursors.
Insectory also features in various degrees amongst primates, such as marmosets and tamaims, and indeed there is some suggestion that the earliest primates were nocturnal, harbored insectivores (Weiss and Mann, 1985). To most extent Apes are to a greater or lesser extent, insectivorous (Tutin, Carolene, et al 1992; McGrew, 1992, and Coodell, 1986).
Human insect-eating is known in cultures in different parts of the world, such as North, Central and South America, Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Australia and New Zealand. Over 100 insects are known to be eaten in 80% of the worlds nation (Domian, 2011).
However, in some societies, insect eating is uncommon or even seen as a taboo (Weiss and Mann, 1985; Mcelroy and Townsend, 1989 and Gordon, George, 1998). Today, insect eating is rare in the developed world. But insects remain a popular food in many developing regions of Latin America, Africa, Asia and Oceania’s countries.
Rhynochophorous phoenicis larva has been scientifically classified under the kingdom – animals, phylum-arthropoda, class-insecta, order-coleoptera, family-curculiondae, members of the class insect are important sources of food/protein to many. Rhynochophorous phoenicis larva are major pest of oil palm, Raphia palm, coconut palms, ornamental palm and even sugar cane (Vidyasagar, et al, 2001). It is popularly called or known as edible worm or a large insect larva gotten from palms. It is fleshy, grub-like and usually measure over 3.5cm in length and width 2.0cm (Citialli and Sherley, 2004).
The insect cycle from egg to adult cover 60 days of which 26 days are spent as larva. They are found in wide geographical locations (Kaishoen and Lean, 1981). Rhynochophorous phoenicis larva are cherished as food among the people and communities in Nigeria where they are produced especially the southern area of Nigeria that are climatically friendly. It is usually seen hawked along major roads and markets in Edo, Delta, Ondo and even as far as Lagos (Ekrakene and Igeleke, 2007).
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is primarily on the socio-economic study of the people involved in the production, processing and marketing of edible worm.
In view of the wide production and consumption of this larva in Edo/Delta States, the study is limited to high production/processing areas of Ologbo town (Oredo Local Government Area) in Edo State and Mosogar town (Ethiope West in Delta State).
In areas of consumption, study is going to be in Benin City and Warri in Delta State.
JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
Rhynochophorous phoenicis larva is fast assuming greater significance in the diet of most city dwellers as a delicacy with potential huge financial benefits to rural dwellers, therefore, there is the need to examine closely the various processes involved in the production, processing, preservation, storage and marketing. This will be of immense benefit to edible worm producers, marketers, consumers, as well as the national economy.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to determine;