2.6 Organizational Behaviour
Modification Theory (OMB)
3.2 Sources of
3.5 Location of
3.6 Sample and population
3.7 Method of
3.8 Method of data
4.0 Data presentation and
4.1 data presentation and
5.0 Findings, recommendation and
5.1 Summary of
This project was undertaken to find out the motivational
uncreative employed by the universal insurance company limited Enugu (Unique)
and their effects on productivity.
This project work is divided into five chapters. The chapters are summarized
below. The project starts with an introduction which is broken down into
sub-heading as shown below:-
1.1 Historical perspective
1.2 Background information of the company
1.3 Statement of problem
1.4 Purpose of study
1.5 Statement of hypothesis
1.6 Significance of study
1.7 Scope of study
1.8 Limitation of study
1.9 Definition of terms
The second chapter of this project is concerned with the review of
related literature. The third chapter titled, Research design and methodology,
deals with the source of data, location of data, collection of data, population
sample and data analysis.
Data collections for this research were analyzed in chapter four.
In chapter five, the research findings were high lighted
recommendation made and conclusion dram.
The term motivation can be traced to the Latin word “moreover”
which means to move. This meaning can be expanded by the following formal
definition by Bereson and Sterner (1964) viz - motivation towards goals: the
motivation connotes “need, drives” and “goal”.
The study of motivation can also be traced back to the Unisom’s of
the ancient Greek philosophers like Robert E. Taneke more than twenty -three
centuries ago. They presented had monism as a yardstick to express what really
is human motivation.
Hadorism is the concept which says that a person seeks out comfort
and pleasure and avoids discomfort and pains. We often see this in the
assumption of many manger that employees do not want to work, they are
essentially lazy and milling if given the chance to avoid the pains of working.
Sigmind Fred also attempted to explain men’s behaviour in terms of
three elements, sex aggression or self, preservation and death. Evidence have
been shown that after the launching of psychology as a scientific discipline,
experiment psychologists of the earlier period were interest largely I looking
for the conscious experience produced in human subjects, whose sense organs
were being exposed to a particular kind of stimulus or engaged in a particular
kind of task.
They were confronted by motivational problems but they did not to
an in-depth investigation on these human problems.
After sometime, men like Wastern, Thorndike and pallor beggar to
seek laws governing behaviour. They began with the simplest form which could
almost conveniently be studied in animals. They otherwise did not see the need
to consider the motivation conditions of the organism but only analyzed the
behaviour in terms of “refluxed” or stimulus response which relates granular
reaction to event in the internal environment.
Fraud and modogally having become involved in abnormal psychology
respectively, were brought face to face with some of the dramatic extremes
reached by behaviour outside the laboratory reached by behaviour outside the
laboratory and felt compelled to denovice the Varity of attempting to explain
animals or human actions without reference to “agree” instruct “purpose” goal”
By the beginning of the 19305, early behaviorism, monizi and
major, reported in 1949, that reticular formation of the brain germ that
general the electroeven phalagraphic patterns (graphic transaction of
information derived from the brain), indicating an alert brain, when part
together with the proceeds of other line of research to the psychological
concept of arousal level” (which is a older concept of drive) in an indication
of the fact that motivation has had a long history.
Many units and social scientists like George Elton Myor, 188o -
1949, fredrick wimslow taylor 1856 - 115 henry fayol 1841-1925, Donglas Murray
Mcgregor 1906-1964, fredrick Hezberge and a host of others have all in one way
or the other contributed to motivational works.
1.2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT THE UNIVERSAL
The universal insurance company limited was formally owned by the
old Imo Anambra state government and the African continental bank limited. Its
history dates back to the period immediately after Nigeria’s political
independence in 1960, which was characterized by inadequacy growth could evolve.
This period reveal the reluctance to invest in long-term tenures
as projects which offered quicker returns were generally preferred it was thus
a pressing need to raise the level of capital available locally for initital
development of the eastern Nigeria to conceive the ideas for the establishment
of an indigenous insurance company.
Following a feasibility study while further indicated governments
noble intervention was done by the late Mr. M. T. Okpara, the premier of the
then Eastern Nigeria who directed that, the indigenous government should
establish an insurance company. Thus in 1960, the universal insurance company was
born, adapting a name that portrayed the scope of vision and driving force that
motivate its founder’s
This dream was crystallized on 22nd march,
1961, when the company opened its gate for business in pursuance of those
original aims and objective that brought it into existence.
From the then modest beginning there was only eight foundation
staff in a single room office. The company has made more than ordinary progress
in its “39” years of existence. Today the company occupies and enviable
position in the hierarchy of the insurance industry in Nigeria, engaging
sizeable staff of not more than “500”.
True to the aspiration of the founding fathers, the company has
maintained as impressive record of profit margins since 1965 when the company
declared its first profit.
Due to the effect of the Nigeria civil war which caused the
company to record losses between 1966 declared a profit of N31,09200 in 1977
and 1978 repectively the growth of the company was heightened by the
introduction of the universal “budget system” in 1974 as a management tool by
which branches are given targets at the beginning of every year and to ensure
the achievement of the set targets. Through this method the company ensured
itself increased income from both life and non-life business.
The company registered a profit of N582,169, N376, 861,N286,813
and N418 581 in 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985 respectively.
The company has also received a fair share of the austerity
measures, whereby the company experiences a fall in incomes and increased in
claims. The company has maintained its useful promptness.
Before the civil war the company had branch office in a few towns
in the country such as pot-Harcourt, Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Onitsha. Aba,
Umuahai, Orlu, Okigwe, Benin, Ikort-Epkere and Oya. There was only and
arrangement whereby the company opened a representative office in London to
cater for the needs of Nigeria living there.
The market survey conducted after the civil war revealed that not
all the old branch offices would be viable if re-opened in view of the creation
of new states in 1967. Re-opening new ones was therefore done with utmost
discretion and some old ones were left out completely. Today, there are many
branch offices scattered all over the country.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In every organization individuals have different aspirations and
aims no two individuals are the same.
In an organization like the universal insurance company limited
Enugu, employees have sworn to destroy and work against the objectives of the
company, they would come to work every morning and world not like to be
usefully engaged. Some of the employees would like then working fine to be
reduced and their salaries increased.
For some other employees, the reverse is the case these employees
would aim at building the company to greater height by their office until their
job for that day is completed. All these differences in employees attitude pose
a problems to the management.
The researcher would attempt to find out how these individual
employees would react or respondent, if they are adequately and positively
modified with the right incentives.
What incentives are employed by the universal insurance company
limited Enugu to motivate their salesman and to what extent have these
incentives achieved their defused results in terms of increased
1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDY.
of organization are very conscious of the fact that no two human beings are the
same”. Some salesman always performs at high level and need little or no
control and yet appear to enjoy or feel satisfied with their jobs. Other
salesman perform at low level, requiring constant attention and direction, and
are often absent from work. The reason for this performance differences tarry
and are very complex. These include the nature of the job, the behaviour of the
manager, the characteristics of the employees the nature of the environment,
Can motivation solve this problem and contribute to higher
productivity and higher job satisfaction of the employees.
This work would attempt to probe into the motivational incentives
employed by the unversed insurance company limited Enugu, and how these motivational
incentives affect productivity in the company.
The findings of this research would help to highlight
organizational problems related to motivation and also suggest possible ways of
improving motivation in the company.
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
In order to serve as effective guide to this research work I formulated
the following hypotheses.
Ho: Null hypothesis
The universal insurance company limited Enugu uses incentives to motivate her
The incentives used by the universal insurance company Enugu to motivate her
salesman are not effective.
The incentives used by the universal company Enugu to motivate her salesman are
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY.
organization like the universal
Enugu, the necessary factors of production are available yet the company does
not seen to operate at full capacity. The reason behind this might be
that one of the factors of production is not fully utilizing and if this is the
case production would not be opinion.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY.
focus of this project is the universal insurance company limited, Enugu. The
study will be limited to the headquarters of the company, which is located in
Enugu, due to time constraint, it is not possible to extrude this study to the
branches of the company.
I will endeavour to find out the types of incentive offered to salesman
by the company and the effects of such incentives on productivity.
It is an inner focus that makes one to act in a particular way.
it is those stimulus that makes one to act in a particular way. Incentives lead
to an inner feel or drive.
They are immediate response o a particular situation.
it is a doctrine that all human action could be explained by stimulus and
This is some time referred to objectives it is the end to which organization
shivers towards achieving. It could be informed of profit efficiency, good
It is an act of organizing a body of people, company, school etc. it is also
the structure of relations that exist between positives in a group.
it is the act of getting things done through others.
those employed to work in an organization
it is that potion of the universe to which the research has access to and it
this is the person who conducts a research.
this is refers to all those who responded to the questionnaire and interview
administered to them by the researcher.
those who undertake the task and functions of managing at any level in any kind
m. Theory: A
systematic grouping of interested principles and concept which provides frame
work for significant knowledge.
Labour force of the organization which undertakes the sales and distribution of
goods and services.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
For more informations on project materials and more