DEVELOPMENT WRITING ON PRINCIPLES OF PRINTING
Elements of Printing
Method of Identification
Difficulties in Letter Press Printing
Letter Press Machine
Components of a Computer System
The Printing Ink
Off set Machine Printing
Principle of Offset Litho
INTRODUCTION TO HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Between 15th century from the invention of muturable types in the 15th century to the years 1800 the techniques of cover posing printing and book binding am ong the only existing processes of the period noticed a --- improvement revision of techniques and equipment were few and of modest conception what printing look like before 1683 started in African, Egypt to be precise with writing on heaves found on the back of the Rive Nile on these leaves called papers were written massages and attached to dogs and pigeons to derived destinations we said above then what printing was like is not known and thin back. In 16 83 Joseph Moxon’s monomental work was God fired and for the first time printing procedure was codified.
Early methods and their investors
We have ---- where we and erpert opinion suggestions that gutenburg modelled him --- press on proelum or wine press. As time elapsed so refinements were made to big and clumsy presses of 15th century, the TUMPAN AND FRISKET were added in about 1545 and the metal series was introduced in 1550, poribly by DANNER a printer in MUREMBURG at that time but the associated history is some what confused.
A printing press of Dutch origin, the work of WILLEM JANSZOON. BLAEU, was available in 1620 and embochied several development although some authorities have accredited certain improvement to BLAEU which are not device for effecting the automatic return of the platen often impression. Subsequently attempts pressers wee frustrated by take of stability in the wooden france which tended to stretch under the slightest strain ----- step toward was in 1790 when on American, ADAM RAMAGE brict a press which incorporated both an iron platen and bed and also included a spring device for inducing the automatic ascent of the platen offer impression.
In 1796 firming DIDOT cominoned a press with a large iron platen capable of printing a full form is stage by taking two elistinct impression. The DIDOT press was soon to be supplented by the first all iron press.
Thus, on the eve of the 19th century printed impression. The chniques of the compositor in the year 1800 had advanced very liuttle, if at all from moxons day. Printing can be traced as far back as AD 594 to the Chinese whom used block from which print were produced. However relief printing, as we know it was developed in Europe during the fifteenth century as a result of Gutenbery. Invention of movable type.
The early presses were adaptation of the winepresses in use of that time.
Few improvement or charges were made to this system. Public desire for reading which placed increasing demands of the painter technological development of the nineteenth century, the so called industrial Revolution were vast and reflected on the demand for increase for production especially of book and newspapers. Also running of the paralled with changes machine designs were the invention to the paper making and the invention of mechanical typesetting machine, faster, bigger, efficient presses were need to cope with the out put of from mechanical typesetting machines.
The most remarkable development was the introduction of iron Stan hope presses within in the period of 18 30 18 40. The rotary presses were developed for newspaper work.
Today the baie principles remained the same but the machines themselves have been developed to sophictaktion high speed electronically controlled pressed now in use.
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH IMMUNIZATION OF CHILDREN AMONG THE ILLITERATE MOTHERS IN ESAN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
This study is attempted to provide a general information and knowledge about the problems associated with immunization among illiterate mother in Esan West Local Government Area from the findings, it was observed that ignorance and inability of mothers to get their child immunized lead to death of children so government area advised to explain the main importance of immunization to mothers in order to increase the rate of immunization.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Limitations of the study
Definitions of terms
Review of related literature
Concept of immunization
Nature and scope of immunization
Types of immunization
Importance of immunization
Consequences of not immunizing a child
Attitudes of mothers towards immunization
Population of the study
Sample of the study
Sampling techniques adopted
Validation of instrument
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis
Presentation of data and discussion of results
Presentation of data
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The immunization of a new born child is a very important way of preventing illness considering the way common diseases that claimed the life of children. According to Oichl and Datrymple (2009) when more than 50% of a community population are immunized against a disease, the possibility of epidemic is removed. Supporting this view, Ogbuibe (2005) pointed out that the entry point to be fill introduction of all elements of primary health care system, immunization against diseases in one of the fairly they elements of the child’s survival and development. The national programme of immunization was for certain target groups of the population mainly children within the large group of 0-2 years and pregnant mothers or women. It is target against the six deadly and childhood diseases. These diseases are tuberculosis, measles, poliomyelitis, tetanus, chicken pox and whooping cough. The high rate of mortality from disease preventable by immunization underscores the need for immunization was the most effective programme to reduce these diseases for which satisfactory immunization procedures have been established.
When a disease is peculiar to certain area, health authorities may recommend immunization of all persons in that area particularly those who are likely to be exposed to it. To buttress this view, Anderson (2000) suggested that mass immunization against typhoid fever is not advocated but if an epidemic occurs in a community, health authorities may implore all susceptible persons to be immunized. The success of any immunization programme depends largely on the target population. It is pertinent to note that mothers are the persons in the issues of the children rearing pattern in our society whereby the mothers rather than fathers are the home keepers and know better about their children’s immunization status. Therefore, all children should be protected. All mothers should understand the importance of immunization to ensure this, Sohem (2005) recommended the vaccination of all new born children should be registered at all health clinics for routine immunization. This entails that they should undergo all stages of immunization.
According to the oxford advanced learners dictionary (2004), immunization is the process of protecting an individual or animal from a disease especially by giving them an injection or a vaccine. Immunization is also defined as a process by which human beings protect themselves from, or against deadly diseases such as poliomyelitis, measles, tuberculosis, diphtheria, whooping cough, vaccination is also another name for immunizing living things against deadly diseases. Immunization is done to make the body resist invasion of pathogenic microbes like bacteria, protozoa and virus. In immunization, a small quantity of a dead parasitic organism is injected into the body of a healthy person (somebody that is free from that parasite organism), the body recognized the antigen as foreign response by realizing specialized protein called antibodies. These antibodies have specific protective properties and the body become immune against the disease that are caused by micro-organisms. Immunization can be active, positive, natural, or acquired.
Immunization is the act of protecting someone against a disease by the intake of inoculation of vaccine or other protective agents which stimulate natural body resistance. It could be active or passive. Immunization is the active which involves administering agents which stimulates the receivers’ own immunological mechanism who responds by producing reactions in his resistance to infect by the organisms from which the antigen was derived or obtained. This takes several weeks to produce effective protection hence, it has a prophylactic value but last forever. On the other hand, immunization is said to be passive by the giving of already made anti-bodies formed by another lost in response to natural injection. This has immediate protective and therapeutic value but last for a short period.
Parent especially the mothers in question do not get their children immunized. The superstition belief or idea that disease are caused by witches and wizards are strongly rooted in their mind, some believes that diseases are caused by evil spirit and the only way out for them to avoid it is by offering sacrifice and some believe that it is the sin that the parents have committed towards the gods that make the child to be like that and there is no solution to the sickness of the child.
Some parent know where and how to obtain it but do not take their children to the clinic for immunization while others that made attempts to take their children to the clinic for immunization may start and will not complete the normal dose they are supposed to give to that child. In a particular health center, i.e. Ikpoba Okha Health center in Edo State, between January 2007 to December 2010, fifty six thousand six hundred and forty two (56,642) children were registered for different types of immunization. Out of these only thirty four thousand six hundred and twenty two (34, 622) children completed their immunization, the remaining twenty two thousand and twenty (22,020) fall to complete their immunization. Some mothers later brought their children to complete their immunization after a long time. When they asked them why they did not bring their children ever since, the most population reason they gave was that, they were not chanced due to their jobs. They devoted much time to their jobs e.g. trading, government workers etc others said they came several times but in most occasions, the nurses asked them to go home that the health of their babies was poor.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The decision to carry out the study was due to the problem associated with immunization of children among the illiterate mothers in Esan West Local Government Area. In the past, many children died before the age of 5 or before the school age due to communicable diseases e.g. tuberculosis, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, whooping cough, measles, tetanus etc. they did not know that these disease could be prevented. These communicable disease were discovered by scientific researcher, clinics are established where the disease can be prevented by treatment. Many people are not still making use of the clinic and health center, perhaps due to ignorance, inability of mothers to get the facilities or non availability of vaccine or lack of understanding.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This research work is an attempt to study the attitude of mothers towards immunization in Esan West Local Government Area in Edo State. The purpose of this study is to:
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research is expected to be of great importance to parents and the general public in Esan West Local Government Area who will appreciate the implication of the problem of immunization and know the best way to handle them. The study conducted was done to aid the following group of people.
The Mothers: The mother will be advice properly on what they should do. The information gathered will be of great importance which may change mother’s attitudes towards immunization programme.
The health center: The suggestion made will be used as a source of correction measure to health persons on one way or the other may have contributed to the lukewarm attitude of mothers when they bring their children for immunization through health education and lack of follow up visit to trace defaulters.
Ministry of health, Edo State: The findings may serve as a clue for Edo State Ministry of health to make better plan by making of health to make better plan by making adequate provision of vaccine and training more people into the health sector to promote child immunization in Edo State.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Based on the assumption made, the following research questions are postulated.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This is restricted to the attitude of mothers towards immunization in some selected health centres in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. The sample population is made up of mothers who were selected by simple random process.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Health: The state of well being physically and mentally.
Health Center: A building where group of doctors, nurses and health workers see their patients.
Mothers: A female parent of a child.
Child: A young human who is not yet an adult.
Immunization: To protect a person or an animal from disease or an animal from disease especially by giving them an injection or a vaccine.
Measles: An infectious disease especially of children that cause fever and small red spots that cover the whole body.
Tuberculosis: A serious infectious disease in which swellings appear on the lungs and other part of the body.