THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE PROCESSING PRODUCTION AND STORAGE OF GARRI IN EDO STATE: A CASE STUDY OF OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
This project work was designed to examine and analyze the factors affecting the processing production and storage of garri in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Five research questions were formulated and questionnaires were administered to hundred respondents in Oredo to determine the result for the study. At the end of the study, it was discovered that colour, size, texture and taste of garri depends greatly on hygiene practices, temperature and sequence right or wrong adopted during production. Recommendations included that hygiene practice especially in the early stage of processing garri should be taken seriously in order to avoid the risk of cross contamination must be properly controlled to avoid incomplete detoxification. Sieving must be carried out before consumption, and the temperature with which garri is been fried very important. Finally, garri produces must follow the right sequences to produce garri.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Delimitation of the study
Limitation of the study
Definition of terms
Population of the study
Sample and sampling technique
Validity and reliability
Method of administering the research instrument
Method of data analysis
Presentation and analysis of data
Summary, conclusion and recommendation
Summary of findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The industrial processing of cassava into garri. Cassava is a very versatile commodity with numerous uses and by product. Each component of these plant can be valuable to its cultivator. The leaves may be consumed as a vegetable, or cooked as a soup ingredient or dried and used it to fed livestock as a protein feed supplement. The stem is used for plant propagation and grafting. The roots are typically processed for human and industrial consumption.
In Nigeria, the consumption pattern varies according to ecological zones. Garri is a roasted granule, is the dominant product and is widely accepted in both rural and urban areas. It can be consumed without any additives or it can be consumed with a variety of additives such as sugar, groundnut, fish, meat and stew. The north east also use the cassava as fufu/akpu, garri abacha. Fufu is a fermented wet paste from cassava is also consumed throughout the country especially in the southern zones how every most processors complain that the wet paste are ready to eat forms of fufu, that are currently sold, have a short sheaf life. Estimates of industrial cassava use suggest that approximately 16 percent of cassava root production was utilized as industrial raw materials in 2001 in Nigeria. Ten percent was used as chips in animal feed, 5 percent was processed into a syrup concentrate for soft drink and less than one percent was processed into high quality cassava flour used in biscuits and confectionary, destrin pre-geled starch for adhesive, hydrolysate for pharmaceuticals and seasonings.
Garri is cassava tuber should be free from microbial contamination garri should be processed within two days of harvest to prevent deterioration or loss of quality in garri. Garri is a creamy-white granular flour with a slightly fermented flavour and a slightly sour taste made from fermented gelatinized fresh cassava tubers. Fresh cassava tuber is most, low acid food that is susceptible to bacteria and fungi growth. Hygienic practices especially in the early stage of processing should therefore ensure minimal contamination, all waste material from the process should be removed from the site as they are produced to avoid contamination of the final product with peel sand.
Fermentation must be properly controlled as to short period will result in incomplete detoxification. Fermentation consists of two distinct methods Aerobic and Anerobic fermentation for aerobic fermentation, the peeled and sliced cassava roots are first surface dried for 1-2 hours and then heaped together, covered with straw or leaves and left to ferment in air for 3-4 days until the pieces becomes moldy. The fermented moldy pieces are sun-dried. After the mold has been scrapped off. Theprocessed and dried pieces (called “Mokopa” in ugandal are then milled into flour, which is prepared into a “fufu” called “Kowan” in Uganda. The growth of mold on the root pieces, increases the protein content of the final products three to eight times. (Amey, 1987, Sauti et al, 1987). This fermentation method is also very popular in other parts of East Africa as Tanzania, Rwanda and Zaire.
A long period of too will result in given the product a strong sour tests. Both over-fermentation and under-fermentation also affect the texture of the final garri if too much liquid is press from the grinded cassava the gelatinization of starch, during sub-sequent roasting is affected and the product is white. It the sufficient liquid is not removed however the fermentation of granules during roasting is affected and the dough is more likely to form into lumps. The idea of moisture content is about 47-50% and this is assessed visually by experience to the starch, sieving is important because it enable one to obtain a higher quality product free of fibrous contaminated. The granules must be roasted to above 80oc/175oc to achieved partial gelatinization of the starch. If lower temperature are used the product simply dries and produces a dry white powder. Too high temperature will cause charring of the product and make it stock to the roasting pan.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Garri today is a staple food in Nigeria and beyond for us to ascertain proper hygiene quality of the product there is the need to focus on the processes involved. However, due to high demand of garri by consumers the producers of garri no longer see the need to do the right thing to produce high quality of garri what they after this day is the money they will make from the sale of the product. Thus the problem of the study therefore is to find out whether proper hygiene practices are carried out following during the processing of garri to avoid the risk of contamination. The study will be concerned with the fermentation process of garri. Whether the texture of garri is as a result of the fermentation process or whether the grated cassava is over or under fermented. The study is also concerned to ascertain the cause of lumps in garri whether it is due to drought or not. More so, it will focus on the rational behind the charring of the product and why it sticks to the roasting pan during frying.
Thus, the final product reduced to about 18%. This is a problem is commercial production. To produce garri at a fast rate and eliminates the problem of the traditional method.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study is set to find out or to ensure that the final product is cooked and dehydrated. This study is therefore to find out the changes that caused friction between the cassava mash and the conveyor. Thus this study is concerned with, the proper hygiene practices can affect the production of a high quality of garr free from fibrous, contaminants and with similar sized granules. Finally this study will compare the garri production under lower temperature, to determine the extent to which temperature can affect the production of final garri, and under what temperature the product can be stored and the maximum drying time, rate of feed temperature control. Thus this study is to come up with a sound continuous process of garri frying machine, based on the avoidance of caking of the cassava mash.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In this study will sought from the following research questions;
1) Do proper hygienic practices increase the quality of good garri?
2) Does garri produced under fermentation posses better quality production?
3) Does sieving of garri bring better quality in the texture of garri?
4) Is it better to produce garri under a high temperature?
5) Under what temperature can garri be stored?
6) Is fermentation of garri important in the production of garri?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of the study will be overwhelming and have far reaching effects on all firstly it will enable the producers of garri to know the significance of hygiene in the processing production and storage of garri. Hygienic practices especially in the early stage of processing should ensure maximum contamination. It will help the producers to know how it control the fermentation process involved in garri production. It will also help to determine the temperature which a good texture dry white producer a lovely grain garri can be produced. Nevertheless it will help the producers to know the ideal moisture content required `in garri, apart from the overwhelming benefits the producers of gari will derive the study will help consumers of garri to know the process involved in the production of garri and this will help them to appreciate the product better than before.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The researcher selected some local garri producer in villages in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Nevertheless the research is delimited to the production of garri only. And not all product of cassava can be processed into garri.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Cassava: The root of cassava are rich in carbohydrate, mainly starch, according to some research that was carried out cassava is the third most important source of calories, in terms of consumption either by eaten, grated cassava food products are the most important staples of rural and urban households in southern Nigeria. Current estimates who that the dietary calories equivalent of per capital consumption of garri (toasted granules), chips/flow fermented pastes. Cassava has become a very popular crop and is fast replacing yam and other traditional staples of the area, gaining ground increasingly as an insurance crop against hunger, cassava is also a major cash crop.
Fermentation: Of experience the mash is placed in a porous bag and allowed to ferment for one or two days, while weights are placed on the bag and chemical change, because of the action of bacterial. It also reduced the glycosides in anaerobic fermentation, grated cassava for processing into “garri” is placed in sacks and pressed with stones or a jack fermentation is the heat of garri processing because it is where the poisonous acid (HCN) is detoxified and removed to make the garri edible.
Garri: Is a creamy-white granular flour with a slightly fermented flavour and a slightly sour tastes made from fermented gelatinized fresh cassava tuber. Garri is widely known in Nigeria and other West African countries.
Granules: It is a small hard pieces of garri after been sifted.
Hygiene: It is the practice of keeping the area where garri is been produced should be clean in order to prevent it from bacterial or fungi diseases.
Sieve: Is a tool consisting of a wire or plastic mach held in a frame, used for straining solids from liquids, for separating coarser from finer particles, or for reducing soft solids to a pulp. It is also a safer, a device use for separating wanted elements from unwanted material ort for characterizing the particles.