This work has its main
objectives as the determination of investment potentials in poultry farming at
Omuma. To the best of the researcher’s knowledge, this is the first conscious
attempts to address this issue as it affects the suitability at Omuma for
poultry farm.Chapter one is the introduction. It covers such preliminary
information like the General Background of the study, Problems associated with
the study, Problems that the study will be concerned, the importance of
studying area. Definition of important terms.Chapter two is literature review.
Literature is reviewed under six major headings: the origin of the study
matters. The school of thought to the problem study, different method of
solving the problem of the study, summary and references.
Chapter three is on project
research and methodology, method and sources of data presentation, analysis of
data, recommendation, conclusion and references.
TABLE OF CONTENT
General background of the study
Problems associated with the study
Problem that the study will be concerned with
The importance of studying area.
Definition of important terms
The origin of the study matters
The school of thought to the problem of study
The school of 4thought to the relevant problem of study.
Different method of solving the problem of study
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Analysis of data
This work is the study of the
feasibility of the establishment and successful management of small scale
poultry farm at Omuma despite the various rural limitations existing in the
The choice of this study did
arise from impulse, rather, it was well thought out of the so many years of my
association with the town, Omuma where I was born and brought up.
However, my decision to embark
on the topic was reinforced by the statement made by G.T. Williams who said
modern economic pressures are such that as one could contemplate a future in
farming until they first acquire reliable up to data knowledge in every aspects
of animal husbandry.
This is a sector of farming
which requires more than any other, a careful application of managerial
expertise, if one’s capital investment is to be safeguarded / let alone show a
This return is agreeable to me
and further re-affirms my desire to find out the extent to which failures in
this important sector of agriculture could be attributed to mismanagement
through small scale business is quite relation to the general economic
conditions. It is good that most business be started a small business before
they graduate into big business and conglomerates. This has informed my desire
and intention to relate my study to the establishment and management of a small
scale poultry farm. It is my intention that is study would be a springboard for
further insight into the management aspect of poultry farming, such that
available information and research on poultry farming could be optimally
applied to, to maximize the contribution of poultry to the social economic
advancement of Omuma Oru East Local Government Area Imo State and Nigeria in
OF THE STUDY.
This is not the first time that
an attempt will be made to establish poultry farm neither is it the first
attempt to emphasize the contribution of management to successful poultry
However, this is the first time
that serious are being asked about the reasons for the failure of pre various
attempt to engage in successful poultry farming at MPU. Study is being made to
ascertain the best contribution of management towards making poultry farming
both alternative and profitable at MPU first and later ate other places in the
country. A good knowledge of the background to this study is therefore
necessary for the achievement of the researcher’s aspirations. Prior to the
industrial revolution, there was no problem of meat deficiency.
This is because there was
multiplication in reproduction of wild animals and the catching of the wild
beasts, which were abundant in supply. But with industrialization things
changed. The forests were cleared and industries emerged with its demand and
Urban centres were created where paid employees lives and industries were
Subsequent to urbanization, rural to urban migration started as people searched
for paid employment.
Forest gave way to industrial centres as industries dominated the scene. As a
result, the urban dwellers could neither produce their primary food needs to
catch wild animals as they used to do in forests. The above situation created
problems, which called for solution.
In attempt to solve the problems it becomes clear that subsistence farming was
no longer adequate as those paid employees in urban centres have to be fed.
That the dependable and wild beast to satisfy protein needs was no longer
sufficient as the virile group who capyure the animals have gone to the urban
centres for paid employment, commercial farming and animal husbandry was
introduced to solve these problems. But while the activity of crop production
was limited by use of crude implements to which it was subjected to, animal
husbandry failed the problems of lack of fast growing and improved species of
birds and animals.
It is to be noted however that
prior to the period of industrial revolution, chicken poultry domestication had
started but not on commercial buses. For example, Bible account the other
available evidences show that goat and sheep domestication dated back to 1000
years while chicken domestication dates back to about 2000BC that is about 4000
years ago. The reasons for the slow development of poultry are not clear but
might be connected with adverse cultural practices like the situation in
some areas in Nigeria where the consumption of chicken and eggs are forbidden.
The researcher’s emphasis is however not on the period of domestication but on
modern commercial poultry management. No remarkable improvement occurd in
animal husbandry in general until the 18th century
when an Englishman Robert Bakwell showed in 1700 that animals can be improved
by intensive breeding of desirable traits. Major improvement however, followed
Gregormendals study and theory on genetics in 1800, which showed how different
animals with desired morphology.
Full commercial poultry started
in 1920, but just as industrialization started late in Nigeria. Commercial
poultry also started late contributing to the late development of commercial
poultry in Nigeria was colonial government policy of promoting that aspect of
agriculture that produces cash crops for supply to their home government. The
protein needs of colonial officers were met through import.
With independence the new
Nigerian government attempts to reverse the neglect of animal husbandry in national
planning. During the first nation development plan period (1961 – 1966).
7.844 thousand heads of poultry
were produced in the Eastern region while 16.771 thousand tones of egg were
produced. This figure was however, insignificant when compared to population of
8,100,000. In 1966, 14,560,000 heads of poultry was produced a remarkable
improvement that was to be disrupted by Nigeria civil war.
In the second national
development plan period (1970-1975) the government procure 658, 584 day old
chicken for sale to farmers at subsidized rate. In addition it embarked on the
policy of direct production to reduce exclusive dependence of direct production
to reduce exclusive dependence on the importation of day-old chicks. To this
effect, the Agricultural Development Authority (ADA) produced between 1972 and
1975, 52, 722 day old chicken forms ADA hatderies and sold them to farmers. It
also produced 73, 593 dozen table eggs within the same period. Commendable as
they may be, those efforts were insignificant considering the population that
needs to be served. The situation is even more precarious when we realize that
cattle and sheep are not recorded in the then East Central state but are
imported from Northern part of the country.
The third National Development
Plan period (1975 – 1980) envisaged accelerated agricultural growth as being
essential for future nutritional growth an emphasized the needs for qualitative
rather than quantity food output. This followed the publication of a national
food balance sheet by the federal ministry of Agricultural and National
Resources, which revealed the critical extent of essential food deficiencies in
the country. The target of the improvement of production management, the
breeding and fathering of livestock and the provision of veterinary services.
Even with the creation of new
states which gave birth to Anambra State, things were not better as the Abudu
Cattle Ranch the only service of cattle meat in the East, went to Cross River
state. In the end, it was observed that the output of animals products are
falls below the minimum nutritional requirements lending to severe
deficiencies. This situation was not better at MPU where many people had never
eaten an egg in a year as against the re commended average of about 240 eggs in
a year per person. Even vegetables an alternative source of protein was rarely
available as only fluted pumpkins leaves are occasionally used to make soup.
The foregoing indicates that
despite several actions by both the government and few individuals the solution
to the chronic deficiency in qualitative for output is far from being solved as
the following latent problems still exist:
Insufficient supply of hatchable eggs and day-old chicks are still experienced
even with substantial amount of import. Hence peasant poultry farmers could be
seen booking for order and waiting for weeks without supply.
There is still no base stock in which future improvement in the country might
be based. It is in appreciation of these problems that the national seminar or
universities of Agriculture recommended research in the establishment of based
stock of poultry in the country.
Lack of Adequate qualitative feed appropriate to the age and use of the extent
of feed development in the country, information collected from few available
poultry house and farmers indicates that poultry feeds are a very critical
factor in poultry management. The quality of feed can undermine the health and
laying ability of birds. There is therefore the need to formulate a standard
feed based for the country.
The dietary protein requirement is yet to be met.
Apart from feeds, there is insufficient Medicare and veterinary attention
resulting from short veterinary.
While solution to most of the
latent problems is not within the scope of this project. It is the view of the
researcher that improvement through proper management may achieve good results
The use of knowledgeable manpower in poultry.
A critical selection and use of poultry feeds that promotes repaid growth and
enhanced weight gain per unit of feed consumed.
A more pronounced involvement of the agricultural ministry and it veterinary
officers from the planning stage of poultry establishment.
1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH
Recent reports from several
hospitals in the country tell of increased incidence of “Kashiorkor” and other
food deficiency disease reminiscent of the situation during Nigerian civil war.
Medical experts believe that most of those deficiency diseases arise from ,ow
intake of protein foods, which is essential for body building and the synthesis
of certain essential vitamins the mayor source of protein deficiency is caused
by low protein intake. This situation is not different are MPU where available
local birds are specifically reserved for sacrifices and few special occasion
and meat supply from bush meat has been threatened by massive deforestation
aimed at promoting crop production. The low meat supply and the subsequent high
cost of meat has further threatened the United Nations target of “Health for
all by the year 2000”.
It is opinion of the researcher
that the solution to this problem lies in the efficient and domestication of
chicken with a view to increasing livestock supply at an affordable price
This will be the major trust of
the project. Therefore, the development in the world oil market has confirmed
that the nation can no longer afford to concentrate on exchanges. This solution
has therefore prescribed the need to harness alternative sources of export
income to the nation. It is on record that poultry contributes about 7 billion
dollars to the United Nations national income in 1970. An annual contribution
of about 700 million dollars is reported for the conclusion economy. Among
these figures, the United Sate export reasonable amount of its production to
Countries to export and nation
income of the named countries are quite promising and elicits efforts on the
part of Nigerians to improve their export income and general well being through
a proper management of poultry.
1.3 PROBLEM THAT THE STUDY
WILL BE CONCERNED WITH.
This project is intend to make
appreciable input in reducing import of poultry, if not promotes export. It is
the researcher’s view that this could be one of the ways out of the nation
It is a known fact that
unemployment is a serious threat to any economy. It is not only an indication
of inefficiency but its also destructive a the latent energy, which could have
been used beneficially for producing. Are diverted to crime and immorality. It
is the view of the researcher that the high population of Nigeria. Is a
blessing and not a curse. These latent energy, which are left dormant, could be
effectively channeled to production for the benefit of all.
This project is intended to
contribute to a viable solution to unemployment and its consequences.
In conclusion, the project is
intended to solve at least the following problems:
The problems of meat and protein deficiencies in Omuma in particular and the
country in general.
The problems of financial and economic instability arising from the uncertainty
in the world oil market being the country’s major export earner.
Unemployment, inefficiency in the functioning of the economy.
The problems of rural to urban drift.
IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING THE AREA.
This study is expected to
valuable in many respects to different people and groups. To the researcher, it
will provide her with an opportunity to earn a living.
This will be done by providing
her with gainful employment. It will also present as avenue for the employment
of a number of the viable of unemployment in Nigeria thereby reducing the high
rate of unemployment in the country.
This study is also significant
to the extent that it will in filling the gap between the demand and supply of
poultry as a repaid and substantial source of protein to the populace.
It will thus contribute
immensely in curbing the indene of protein deficiency the World Health
Organisation goal, of health for all the year 2000.
In addition to providing
increased personal incomes to researcher and employees, it will also enhance
the income of support organization like feed mills, hatcheries, agro-chemical
industries, animal’s health workers etc.
This will in turn increase the
national income as the implication of improving the value of the income per
capital of average Nigerians and subsequently the condition of living of the
In conclusion, the study will
be significant to:
The researcher, it serves as a viable source of income and employment.
It may serve as an avenue for income and employment generation.
The community, it may help in attracting the attention of responsible agencies
for development of infrastructural facilities.
The state / country for purpose of national income export and employment
generation and a major contribution to the international aspiration of “Health
for all by the year 2000”.
1.5 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT
This term is used to describe
the art of rearing chicken for meat and egg production.
This refers to the young female
birds (chicken) rose for egg production.
This is a term used for female’s
birds (chicken) which has started dropping eggs.
These are bird (chicken) raised
primarily for me at.
This refers to equipment used
to supply drinking water to the chickens.
It refers to equipment used to
administer feeds to the chickens.
This is used to describe the
management system in which the birds 9chicken) are allowed unrestricted access
to sunshine and pasture.
This is a management system
which restricts the chicken from access to sunshine and pasture and allows such
sunshine and pasture as are supported by the attendant or farmer.
This is a kind of intensive
system of management in which many birds (chicken) and housed together and the
floor of the pen is laid with a depth of litter (absorbent material) to prevent
growth of disease organization.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
For more informations on project materials and more