PROBLEMS OF DEFORESTATION IN OVIA NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE
This research was carried out in order to assess the causes and effects of deforestation in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. the researcher collected his information by distributing questionnaire to the people living in Ovia North East Local government Area in Edo State and to the Ministry of Agriculture Department of forestry in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. The information gathered were analyzed and presented in percentages. From the analysis, the researcher was able to identify the following. That it is only the government that can arrest the problem of deforestation. Deforestation can also lead to animal extinction That people resort to illegal felling of trees because employment opportunities are lacking elsewhere. Based on these findings the researcher made recommendations among which are; The government should employ more field staff to combat illegal entry destruction of forest production. These field staff should be made to carry arms while on duty patrol, not only to safeguard themselves but also to instill some fear on timber thieves. The use of village elders in guiding against illegal deforestation should be encouraged.
TABLE OF CONTENT
2. Background to the study
3. Statement of the problem
4. Objective of the study
5. Research questions
6. Significance of study
7. Scope and limitation of the study
8. Definition of terms
1. Literature review
2. Definition and origin of deforestation
3. Review of some factors responsible for deforestation in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State
4. Effect of deforestation
5. Proposed solution to deforestation
6. Man and his environment
2. Sampled sampling techniques
3. Research instrument
4. Method of data collection
5. Method of data analysis
Data presentation and analysis
1. Discussion of results
1. Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The year 2011 is ‘The International Year of Forests’. This designation has generated momentum bringing greater attention to the forests worldwide. Forests cover almost a third of the earth’s land surface providing many environmental benefits including a major role in the hydrologic cycle, soil conservation, prevention of climate change and preservation of biodiversity (Sheram, 1993). Forest resources can provide long-term national economic benefits. For example, at least 145 countries of the world are currently involved in wood production (Anon., 1994a). Sufficient evidence is available that the whole world is facing an environmental crisis on account of heavy deforestation. For years remorseless destruction of forests has been going on and we have not been able to comprehend the dimension until recently. Nobody knows exactly how much of the world’s rainforests have already been destroyed and continue to be razed each year. Data is often imprecise and subject to differing interpretations. However, it is obvious that the area of tropical rainforest is diminishing and the rate of tropical rain forest destruction is escalating worldwide, despite
increased environmental activism and awareness.
Deforestation is the conversion of forest to an alternative permanent non-forested land use such as agriculture, grazing or urban development (van Kooten and Bulte, 2000). Deforestation is primarily a concern for the developing countries of the tropics (Myers, 1994) as it is shrinking areas of the tropical forests (Barraclough and Ghimire, 2000) causing loss of biodiversity and enhancing the greenhouse effect (Angelsen et al., 1999). FAO considers a plantation of trees established primarily for timber production to be forest and therefore does not classify natural forest conversion to plantation as deforestation (but still records it as a loss of natural forests). However, FAO does not consider tree plantations that provide non-timber products to be forest although they do classify rubber plantations as forest. Forest degradation occurs when the ecosystem functions of the forest are degraded but where the area remains forested rather cleared (Anon., 2010). Thirty per cent of the earth’s land area or about 3.9 billion hectares is covered by forests. It was estimated that the original forest cover was approximately six billion hectares (Bryant et al., 1997). The Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, the United States of America and China were the most forest rich countries accounting to 53 per cent of the total forest area of the globe. Another 64 countries having a combined population of two billions was reported to have forest on less than ten per cent of their total land area and unfortunately ten of these countries have no forest at all. Among these countries 16 are such which had relatively substantial forest areas of more 1than one million hectares each and three of these countries namely Chad, the Islamic Republic of Iran and Mongolia each had more than ten million hectares of forest. The forest area remained fairly stable in North and Central America while it expanded in Europe during the past decade. Asian continent especially in India and China due to their large scale afforestation programme in the last decade registered a net gain in forest area. Conversely the South America, Africa and Oceania had registered the net annual loss of forest area (Anon., 2010; 2011a).
The forest is a good source of food, income, ecological resources, social and cultural features, as well as physical facilities like power and building materials. Other functions of the forest are prevention of erosion, as well as the provision of essential habitat for wildlife to survive. Hence, the necessity to conserve the forest and the biodiversity therein. In addition to conserving biological and cultural diversity, it is now widely recognised that many protected areas also have important social and economic functions. These include protecting watersheds, soil and coastlines, providing natural products for use on a sustainable basis, and supporting tourism and recreation (Lee et. al, 2003). Studies in China have also confirmed that medical herb production is a big business and that the suppliers have chosen to invest in forest protection and reforestation in order to guarantee future supplies (see Chen, 1983 and Hou, 1994 for greater details).
In spite of the multi-various usefulness of the forest resources, rapid population growth and changes in land uses have put the forest resources under pressure. For instance, Poore 1989 opined that majority of logging operations in tropical countries are considered unsuitable and damaging. The widespred failure of forest governamnce – characterized by illegal logging, associated illegal trade, and corruption-directly undermines sustainable economic growth, equitable development, and environmental conservation. It puts at risk poor and forest-dependent populations, which rely on timber and non-timber forest products; undermines responsible forest enterprises by distorting timber and reducing profitability; and results in a loss of govenrment revenue that could be invested in sustainable forest management or general economic development (World Bank, 2006). The major determinants of deforestation are the available natural resources in an area, how the resources are being used, traditional beliefs and myths, conflicts in the use of resources, population pressure, vis-a-vis the problem of pollution (soils, air or water). According to Meyer and Turner (2009), societies have profoundly altered their environments in the pursuit of wealth and power have been punished by environmental catastrophes (natural and man-induced). They opined further that world forest area has been reduced by some 20 percent and a large area of land converted from its original vegetation cover to cropping. The major cause of deforestation are increasing demand for housing and infrastructural facilities, crop and timber export, poor agricultural practices cutting of fuel wood for urban areas, head loading (cutting of fuel wood for sale), forest fires, logging, and overharvesting. Other causes are overgrazing, road construction, dam construction, as well as careless exploitation of forest resources. A large empirical literature exists on the consequences of deforestation (see Rosenzweig and Parry, 1994; Western, 1999; Johnston, 1989; Bruijnzeel, 2004; and Brookfield, 1992). Deforestation is responsible for damage to habitate, biodiversity loss and aridity, extinction of rare species of plants and animals, climate change, environmental destruction and the subsequent damage to the sensitive living balance of the ecosystem. Also, empirical studies have confirmed that if we cannot look after the forest they will soon disapper (see Brockington, 2007; Hyde and Sedjo, 1992; Waston et al, 1998; Colin, 2001 and Khare et al, 2000). The threat to timber resources is being combated in most countries by vigorous afforestation. In addition, many have adopted stringent forestry laws, as in Norway and Sweden, to prevent waste, and elsewhere, experiments are taking place to find alternative materials for making paper (Whynne-Hammond, 1979).
Other strategies of combating deforestation are the use of alternative sources of energy other than fuel and charcoal, sustainable agricultural practices rather than slash and burn method of farming, land management, avoidance of indiscriminate bush burning, as well as promulgation and enforcement of environmental laws and forest policies. Likewise, mitigating deforestation entails forest conservation, protection of endangered species, as well as the promotion of ecotourism. These are the measures of achieving sustainable development.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The indiscriminate felling of trees in our forest and the attitude of the people in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State towards our forest has necessitated a massive scale and the people seem to be unaware of its consequences. This study therefore is geared towards finding solutions to some of the problems of deforestation. This study intends to find out the following problems;
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aims of the study are;
1. Does deforestation cause flooding?
2. Does expansion of farmland lead to deforestation?
3. Does overgrazing lead to deforestation?
6. Does deforestation lead to climate change?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The fact that our forest is one of the beauties of nature and an effect means of controlling erosion, man has in either consciously or unconsciously and indiscriminately too. If no efforts are made to guard this, the younger generation may find it very difficult to know what a natural forest look like. They may also be denied of good forest produce for their economic needs and uses. Hence the effort being made by the government in preserving and consolidating the forest in form forest resources is highly impressive.
The study is of importance in that it will enlighten the leaders and the public of our obligation of the forest. To point out the importance of forest to guide against erosion. It will also aid government and forestry officials on how to protect our forest.
The study is of immense importance of the people of Oredo Local Government Area in the sense that to clearly preserve the forest and also on how to plant trees to check erosion.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The study is set out to determine the causes and effect of deforestation in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Therefore, the study is restricted to both men and women in the Local Government Area of Study. Respondents include students, teachers, civil servants, youths, and drivers.
CAUSES OF LOW PRODUCTION OF RUBBER IN EDO STATE: A CASE STUDY OF IKPOBA OKHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EDO STATE
This research study was undertaken with a view to assessing the veracity of rubber production in Ikpoba Okha LGA, Edo State. Several factors were identified as causes of this trend; such as lack of capital, use of old plantations, unavailability of land, price of latex etc. a questionnaires approach was used to obtain data from the farmers in Ikpoba Okha LGA of Edo State. This was subjected to analysis based on stipulated hypothesis drawn from the questionnaires. The result of this analysis showed that lack of capital was not responsible for low production of rubber in Ikpoba Okha LGA. Also, market prices of rubber products had no effect on low rubber production. However, government policies were identified as a cause of low production of rubber in Ikpoba Okha LGA. Therefore, the government should promulgate policies that will encourage rubber production in Ikpoba Okha LGA and Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.2 Background of study
1.3 Purpose of study
1.4 Research questions
1.6 Significance of the study
2.1 Literature review
2.2 Plant profile
2.3 Natural rubber production
2.4 Rubber production trend in Nigeria
2.5 Nigeria natural rubber industry
2.6 Why Nigeria should rehabilitate
2.7 Rubber plantation
Method of study
3.1 Research design
3.2 Population of study
3.3 Sample and sampling procedure
3.6 Validity and reliability of instruments
3.7 Administration of instruments
3.8 Method of data analysis
Presentation of data analysis and discussion of results
4.1 Test of hypothesis
5.1 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Rubber plant (Hevea Brasiliensis) was introduced from Brazil to Nigeria around 1895. It is a variety of plant of the genus Hevea (euphorbiaceae) family, native to Brazil. It commonly known as the rubber tree rubber is an important cash crop which contributed sustainably to the Nigerian economy prior to the oil boom. (Aghimien, 1997).
In recent years, there has been a drastic reduction in rubber production in Nigeria. A total of 207,500 which represented 86.0% of the country’s land area under rubber cultivation on small holdings in 1966, declined to 147,200 hectares in 1980. Recent field surveys showed that more than two thousand of the small holding has been lost to other crop.
Presently, rubber production in Nigeria has decreased and the rubber industries have continued to fold-up (Agra, 1986).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Natural rubber performed three main functions in the Nigerian economy; firstly it provided some of the foreign exchange and placed Nigeria in the world map as an exporter of rubber products. Lastly it provided employment for a sizeable segment of the rural populace. The situation in Nigeria presently pretends a drift from beings a major exporter of rubber products into becoming a net importer in the nearest future. The important question or issue is what are the reasons for the observed down turn or reduction in productivity of rubber, especially I Ikpoba Okha LGA of Edo State.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
This research was undertaken for the following reasons.
a. To confirm the acclaimed decline in rubber production in Owan-West LGA.
b. To ascertain the level of decline in rubber production in Ikpoba Okha LGA.
c. To determine the causes of decline in rubber production solution to the problems resulting in these decline.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Considering the aforementioned purpose of this research, the following research questions are proposed as a guide in this study.
a. What are the major reasons for decline in rubber production in Ikpoba Okha LGA?
b. How much of rubber plantations have been substituted with food crops or other cash crops.
c. What is the level of market forces impact on rubber production
d. Are farmers still interested in cultivating rubber in Ikpoba Okha LGA?
e. How willing are farmers to rehabilitate their rubber plantation.
f. What steps could be taken by farmers to facilitate rubber production.
g. What role could the government and non-government agencies play in encouraging rubber production.
This study was considered on the basis of the following assumptions;
Ho: Capital has no effect on the low production of rubber in Ikpoba Okha LGA.
H1: capital has effect on the low production of rubber in Owan-West LGA.
Ho: Government policies has effect on the productivity of rubber in Ikpoba Okha LGA.
H1: Government policies has no effect o the productivity of rubber in Ikpoba Okha LGA.
Ho: Poor market prices of rubber products has no effect on the production of rubber in Ikpoba Okha LGA.
H1: Poor market prices of rubber products ahs effect on the production of rubber in Ikpoba Okha LGA.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research which is basically investigating will help to achieve the following:
a. Give details of factors responsible for low production of rubber in Ikpoba Okha LGA.
b. It will reveal the perception of farmers on the decline of rubber production.
c. It will help proffer solutions to these factors.
d. It will be a working tool for both government and non-governmental agencies on how to tackle the decline in rubber production.