Liquidity represent the ability to most efficiently accommodate decrease in deposit and fund increase in the loan portfolio, that is to meet the customers loan request fund commitment and line of credit.
A bank has liquidity when it has the ability to sufficient cash in a timely manner of a reasonable cost. The cost of obtaining liquidity is a function of market condition and the degree of risk reflected in the balance sheet. Those who are involved in the management of the source and the use of fund fund deposit in the commercial bank are raised to some degree.
There will be a thorough research to prove how the bank has been managing their liquidity and profitably. In this cause, both secondary and primary data were gathered and was analyzed. The primary source was the administration of questionnaire and oral interview while the secondary source was in form of literature reviews of some books, journals and newspaper.
A critical and statistical analysis was carried out on the data available to access the commercial bank assets and liability management in Nigeria, their efficiency and loopholes in the developing economy. Form the finding of the analysis, the research come up with a conclusion and a recommendation.
1.1 The background of the study
1.2 Statement of problems
1.3 Objective of study
1.4 Significance of study
1.5 Limitation of study
1.6 Definition of terms
0 Review related to literature
2.1 Genesis of banking in Nigeria
2.2 Type of banking in Nigeria
2.3 Functions of banking
2.4 Similarities and differences among banks
2.5 Role of bank in the economic development
2.6 The Nigeria banking climate
2.7 Problems faced by banks
2.8 The concept of banking failure
2.9 Causes of banking failure
2.10 Indices of banking failure
2.11 Effect of bank failure
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 Source of secondary data
3.2 Method of analysis
3.3 Location of data
4.1 General discussion
5.0 Recommendation and conclusion
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A bank is considered liquid when it has asset and investment in security that are easily reliable at a short notice without a loose to the bank together with the ability to raise fund from he other source, to enable it to meet its payment obligation and financial commitment in a timely manner. In addition there should be financial commitment buffer to meet almost all financial emergency.
Liquidity management of a commercial bank is a very vital issue in the banking industry. It is the ability of the bank to manage its liquidity position so that neither the liquidity nor the profitable will suffer. For this to be effective, liquidity management must contribute to the achievement of the overall cooperate fund management objectives to attain and maintain a balance of profitability, solvency and liquidity.
Obligation of the maximum liquidity owed by surplus unite can only be archived by holding enviable fund as cash since it has maximum profitability. The must invest all fund on loan and average the highest yielding, and most liquid of the entire asset in the bank.
Banks, because of the important role they play in the economy, particularly in monetary and credit aspect of the economy faces a lot of restriction irrespective of the fact that banks are the most highly and closely regulated of all the business, they still have to operate within the confines of the law and solve the problem of liquidity and profitability dilemma in the economy. Apart form the constraints and the dual role of liquidity and profitability, there is virtually no work on the liquidity management in Nigeria commercial banks. In the light of this, the researcher has decided to discuses this topic based on the analysis of the data collected. The researcher will suggest some solution the problem of liquidity management in the country.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Commercial bank asset management is a never-ending thing of war. This war is pitched between efficient liquidity management on one hand and profitability on the other hand. As Liquidity and profitability are two inherent goals in commercial bank, bank managers will continue to experience the conflict o trying provide efficient mechanism of addressing their bank liquid and hence their safety of necessarily arising from the nature of their liabilities.
A high proportion of commercial bank liabilities are made up of demand deposits (current account fund deposits) saving deposit, fixed deposit and fund from other source. Demand deposit are those bank liabilities that are payable on demand. Necessary commercial bank need to keep only liquid asset to meet a considerably volume of withdrawal. Liquid asset earn little of zero return on asset. It is les risky and the less it likely to yield adequate returns. As such, the high the less risky asset, the more banks is expose to experience a bank run or crisis. At that rate will probably not able to recover all its cost and then also make profit for the owners. But behold. Commercial bank are business oriented firm with their share holder interested on profitability. In other to satisfy its share holders, a bank might be attempted to forget liquidity and pursue profitability by investing on a high yielding less liquid asset that are profitable at the expense of liquidity which is dangerous. It is always necessary to balance liquidity and profitability in order to have efficient bank management.
The ratio or the percentage of idle cash balance in the commercial bank are to hold at any point in time and to what form to hold it is very necessary. While doing that, they should bear in mind the importance of satisfactory level of profit. There are many constraints to bank in achievement of their goal liquidity and profitability such as legal reserve requirement and they should maintain adequate liquidity to meet the unforeseen and seasonal loan demand and fluctuations of deposits. Cash reserves are also needed to take the advantage of unexpected profitability investment opportunities. In effect, banks are constrained and have to walk on a tight rope. There is the never ending of war or what I may refer to as dilemma policy commercial bank management in developing country. The Nigerian case is further aggravated by the inconsistency of the monetary policy as administered by the central bank of Nigeria. Is the reticent of the monetary coups detach. You will just walk up one morning and hear over the radio of via circular No XY2 that the central bank of Nigeria has issued a monetary circular No adjusting the private whether upward or downward.
The federal government directive on withdrawal on all federal parasttatals account from the commercial bank is one of such constraint. The stock stirred up aggressive market in the banking industry.
Although all this stock are necessary to produce the desired control of money in the economy, but such tends to give nightmare to the banking management. This directive causes ripples in the banking industry as such cause more discrepancy in the liquidity position of the commercial bank and subsequently the rate of profitability.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
1. To look at the liquidity management of the bank in Nigeria with more emphasis on their investment liquidity and profitability portion.
2. To found out why bank need to be more liquidity than any other business organization
3. To solve the liquidity – profitability problems of the banks. To look at the effectiveness and management of the portfolio, by employing and using various approach, theories and instrument in solving their liquidity profitability problems.
4. To examine the bank investment outlet (e.g. loan and advance investment in treasury bills. Banker unite fund, bankers certificate called money, equity participation in small and medium scale firms etc) and the degree of liquidity of such establishment shall be examined.
5. To take critical look of the asset portfolio management of banks with a view to determine if there is a relationship between the rate of profitability and liquidity.
6. To identify why Nigeria banks are excessively liquid and at the same time make high profit.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of liquidity management in the banking industry cannot be over – emphasized. Since not more contribution was made in the topic liquidity management, the researcher will carefully examine those relevant to efficient liquidity management for a successful achievement of the desired profitability.
It is hoped that the result obtained form the study will benefit the management and the non-bank financial institution, business enterprise and student of financial accounting, banking and finance student and other related course.
Readers of this study/work will be expose as regarding the input of future study. The basis of this research work is the position of liquidity of the Nigerian commercial bank as determinant of profitability.
DEFINITION OF TERM
Portfolio: this is a list of security and investment loan stock, shares and lands held/owned by a bank, individual or and organization
Portfolio management: this goes with the management of the security holding (investment portfolio of a bank or a business firm). A committee or portfolio management department or any other body might manage a portfolio.
Liquidity: it is the ability of bank to pay cash immediately when called upon to do so for all of its demand liability.
Liquidity management: it is the ability of the bank to manage the liquidity position so that neither the liquidity nor the profitability will suffer. It evolves the provision for the withdrawal of deposit, short term, and cash cyclical and satirical cash requirements.
Bank deposit: these are fund deposited in a bank. It is divided into demand saving and time deposits
Demand deposit: this also known as checking the account deposit payable on demand that is without pro notice of withdrawal.
Saving deposit: this type of deposit is usually evidence by a past book under which the depositor customer of the bank is required to notify the bank before withdrawal, but it is not the same in practice.
Asset: these are the entire property of a bank and other investment in other profitable organization.
Asset management: it is the allocation of fund, the basic objective being the maximization of profitability, solvency and regulatory constraints.
Bank run: A run occurs in a bank where there is mismanagement of liquidity and profitability.