1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Oat in its different processed forms is an important food for large numbers of people in the developing world, providing significant amounts of nutrients, in particular calories and protein. Its nutritional quality is particularly important for little children.
Oatmeal is a whole-grain food, they are a good source of fibre, each bowl of porridge contains enough beta glucan to help lower cholesterol, as part of a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle (Osol, 2005). Oats naturally contain very little saturated fat and salt it is minimally processed and contains more vitamins, minerals, fiber and phytonutrients than most refined, or processed, grains. Eating oatmeal also supplies you with energy, protein and healthy fats. The nutritional value of oatmeal varies depending on whether it is cooked, instant, fortified or flavored and whether it is prepared with water or milk. In gross nutritional composition, acha differs little from wheat. In one white acha sample, the husked grain contained 8 percent protein and I percent fat (Halbach, 2001). In a sample of black acha, a protein content of 11.8 percent was recorded. The difference lies in the amino acids it contains. In the white acha analysis, for example, the protein contained 7.3 percent methionine plus cystine. The amino acid profile compared to that of whole-egg protein showed that except for the low score of 46 percent for lysine, the other scores were high: 72 for isoleucine; 90-100 for valine, tryptophan, threonine, and phenylalanine; 127 for leucine; 175 for total sulfur; and 189 percent for methionine (Eisenberg, 2009).
The process of fermenting acha to produce oat not only removes parts of the kernel such as the seed-coat and the germ, but also involves washing, sieving and decanting, all of which induce changes in the chemical composition and nutritive value of the final product. Akinrele (2000) reported on specific nutrients of a number of oat samples produced in different ways: unfermented and fermented with Aerobacter cloacae, Lactobacillus plantarum and a mixture of the two bacteria. He compared the values found with those from the traditionally fermented product. Judging from the ratio of amino nitrogen to total nitrogen, the author reported that protein was degraded to a very small amount by any bacterial species. When compared with the unfermented acha.
Acha is a small annual herbaceous plant that grows to a height of 30 to 80 cm and produces inflorescences generally comprising two or three (but anything up to five) racemes. The spikelets on the racemes are grouped in pairs (early varieties) or in threes or fours (late varieties), on pedicels (Osol, 2005). The spikelets comprise a sterile flower and a fertile flower, the latter of which gives rise to the acha grain.
Oat is also a good source of healthy carbohydrates. Because oatmeal is a whole grain, it contains complex carbohydrates, such as dietary fiber. Once can get 28 grams of total carbohydrate from plain oatmeal, 4 of which come from dietary fiber. The body relies on fiber to help maintain proper digestion. Soluble fiber found in oats may also help regulate your cholesterol level and blood sugar. Because fiber swells in your digestive tract, it also encourages satiety after a meal and may aid in your weight-loss or weight-maintenance efforts.
Some oats are fortified, certain nutrients are added to the oats to increase their nutritional value, while other oats are unfortified (Kalix, 2004). Most bulk oats or old-fashioned style oats are not fortified. Prepackaged, instant-cooking or flavored oats are commonly fortified. The major nutritional difference is that fortified oats contain more iron, calcium and the B vitamins thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, B-6 and folate per serving. B vitamins help your body metabolize energy, maintain proper growth and development, keep your nervous system working well, aid in red blood cell formation and may prevent certain neural tube birth defects.
Traditionally produced oat from acha had more thiamine and slightly lower values of riboflavin and niacin than that made with wheat. In any case the changes were small, and smaller if compared with whole maize, whereas in comparison with degermed maize, the oath products contained more riboflavin and niacin. Akinrele (2000) and Banigo and Muller (2002) reported on the carboxylic acids in oath and found lactic acid in greatest concentration (0.55 percent) followed by acetic acid (0.09 percent) and smaller amounts of butyric acid. The latter investigators suggested levels of 0.65 percent for lactic acid and 0.11 percent for acetic acid, responsible for the sour taste, as goals for flavour evaluations. Banigo, de Man and Duitschaever (2004) reported on the proximate composition of acha made from common whole acha which was uncooked and freeze-dried or cooked and freeze-dried after fermentation. Changes were relatively small in all major nutrients, with a slight increase in fibre and a decrease in ash content when compared with whole wheat.
The acha samples, however, had about twice the amount of serine and somewhat higher values for glutamic acid. Adeniji and Potter (2008) reported that oath processing did not decrease the protein content of acha, but total and available lysine were significantly reduced. On the other hand, tryptophan levels were more stable and in the samples.
1.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study will be limited to the comparative analysis and sensory evaluation of porridge produced from acha and quaker oat.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Although oatmeal may seem like a harmless and beneficial product to consume in any amounts, it is not as safe as commonly perceived. Too much oatmeal may lead to adverse health conditions or aggravate the existing problems.
Another major problem is that the cost of quaker oat is very high due to high cost of items in Nigeria compare to acha and that is why most customers are pushed away by the high price. this days there is need for an acceptable and affordable substitute. Acha is available in large quantity in Nigeria especially where it is grown (North). However, it is surprising that so many people are not still aware of acha, it health benefit and various uses.
1.4 THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE:
The objective of this study is produce oat from acha and quaked qat. The specific objectives of this studdy are stated as follows:
i. To compare porridge made from acha and oat in terms of taste, flavor, acceptability.
ii. To educate the public and hospitality industry on the reasons why they should encourage the incorporation of acha porridge for breakfast in their menu.
iii. To bring to the awareness of the services operations and the general public of the health benefit of acha.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. Does acha porridge has any health benefit?
ii. Is there any significant difference in the taste, flour, texture and acceptability.
iii. What is the purpose of incorporating acha porridge into the menu?
iv. Are hotel operators and the general public aware of acha meal and the health benefit.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
i. This research work it’s completion will be able to provide vital information regarding the meaning, concept and sensory evaluation of oat produce from acha and quaked oat in term of its quality, taste and colour?
ii. To educate the public on the nutritional value of these oat produce from acha and quaked oat?
iii. The research questions will highlight various uses of acha plant and nutritional value?
iv. To establish a reference point for future researcher into the utilization of this oat produce from acha and quaked qat?
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
There is no research or study without its own unique limitations, therefore the short comings of this research are:
Time: Time constraint has posed a lot of limitations to this work as it took me a lot of time to gather enough literature materials while it was stressful to travel to different places.
Finance: Inadequate finance for this project is another hindrance: there was no enough money to browse extensively for the needed materials.
Materials: at present there was little literature materials available for this work as researchers were not really focus on this aspect.
However, despite the difficulties facing in course of this research, positive result were achieved.