The study identified Training and Development for non-professional staff in Nigerian University Libraries as practiced and the type of training available to them. The categories of staff that are enjoying the training programme, the relevance of the course contents, the effect of the training programme for non-professional and job performance. The method adopted for the study was survey research method. It was used to assess Training and Development for non-professional staff in six (6) Nigerian University Libraries. These include Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, University of Benin, Benin City, University of Ibadan, University of Ilorin, University of Maiduguri and University of Nigeria Nsukka. The data collected were analyzed and presented in frequency table and percentages. The study found that staff training and development is a necessary tonic for effective and efficient services by the library staff, because with training, it enables the employees to acquire and possess the necessary skills, capabilities, and attitude needed for efficient performance of their job. The type of training available to them include job orientation, formal in-service training, job rotation, typewriting, computer training, Factors like lack of finance, poor remuneration for teachers, delay in releasing the results, lack of basic teaching facilities, lukewarm attitude of staff militate against effective establishment of training programmes.
1.1 Background to the study
Staffing in Academic Libraries
Staff-Training and Development Programmes
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Objectives of the Study
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Limitation of the Study-
1.8 Operational Definition of Basic Terms -
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.2 Concept of Staff Training in Libraries
2.3 Types of Training and Development Programme in University
2.4 Categories of Non-Professional Staff that Enjoy Library Training
2.5 The Course Contents for Training Programmes For Non-Professional Staff in University
2.6 Relevance of Training Programmes For Non-Professionals in
2.7 Challenges of Training Programmes in Nigerian University
2.8 Summary of the Review
3.2 Research Method Adopted for the Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Samples and Sampling Procedure
3.5 Instruments For Data Collection
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection
3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction -
4.2 Response Rate
4.3 Data presentation
4.4 Types of Training Programmes Available for Development of
Non-professional Staff in Selected University Libraries
4.5 Categories of Staff that Benefit from the Non-professional
Training Programmes in Nigerian University Libraries
4.6 Types of Courses Available for Development of Non-professional
Staff in Nigerian University Libraries
4.7 Assessment of Course Contents for Non-professional Staff in
Nigerian University Libraries -
4.8 Relevance of the Course Contents of Training Programmes for
Non-professional Staff in Nigerian University Libraries
4.9 Challenges Militating Against the Training Programmes in Nigerian
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 Summary of the Study
5.3 Summary of the Findings
5.6 Suggestion for Further Study
1.1 Background to the Study
The establishment and development of academic libraries in all parts of the world is very necessary for the development of their parent institutions – the Universities. According to
Olanlokun and Salisu (1993), this type of library started in the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe and America with the founding of universities in those continents. The far Eastern University Libraries followed much later. According to Salisu (2002), academic libraries are recent phenomena in the developing countries of Africa. For instance, Aguolu (1989) stated that Nigeria had the first academic library with the founding of the University of Ibadan in 1948. No other university came into existence until the independence year when the University of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN) was established in 1960.This was followed by University of Ife in 1961 and both Ahmadu Bello and Lagos Universities in 1962. New Universities sprang up in the seventies in response to the yearning of the people for higher education. This trend has continued up till today.
The National Universities Commission (2010) indicated that there are 113 approved universities in the country by this; it means that there are no less than 112 university libraries. It must be realized that University Libraries being an integral academic parts of the University generally emerged simultaneously with their parent institutions. Hence, there are as many university libraries as there are universities in Nigeria.
Tabs (2003) define academic library as an entity in a post secondary institution that provides all the following:
An organized collection of printed or other materials or a combination there of. A staff trained to provide and interpret such materials is required to meet
the informational, cultural, recreational, or educational needs of clientele.
An established schedule in which services of the staff are available to clientele.
The physical facilities necessary to support such a collection, staff and students.
In order to provide users with excellent services, university libraries in Nigeria need a staff well vast in all facets of their work. This is because librarians perform unique role in the society which no one else can exactly do. This is why Kenerson (1997) stated that all categories of library personnel in all types of library have needs to learn; often for a number of reasons. The daily task and major issues that confront individuals require them to apply their knowledge and skills appropriately to each situation. He further stated that universities are experiencing profound changes as a result of automaton of their holdings as well as net-working capabilities to the world of information resources. Indeed, technology is the primary driving force behind this rapid rate of transformation. The catch phrase, according to Zhang (2004), is “do more with less” has forced University Libraries to place a high priority on the continual growth and development of their staff. Notwithstanding the importance of collections and services, the staff remains the libraries’ most important and expensive resource. In support of this, Meggison (2001) stated that the success or failure of library activities depends largely on human resources at its disposal.
University libraries have been significantly influenced by these transformations The National Universities Commission NUC (1978) in its draft manual on University Libraries, stressed that:
“The Librarian should ensure regular training and development of all his staff, He should encourage illiterate staff, if any , to go for adult literacy classes to ensure their retention and progress in a ‘book’ institution such as the university library. The librarian should encourage all staff, when appropriate, to go for higher education. Library Assistants for Diploma in Library Science, Graduates for Master’s and Doctorate Degrees, short courses for administrative and secretarial staff. Sponsorship for any training should be based on hard work. The librarian should encourage his staff to participate in continuing education programmes. The staff should be sponsored for conferences, seminars and workshops; they should be encouraged to participate actively in presenting papers. The library seminar papers usually help the staff in these external seminars/workshops and conferences.
The manual also notes that: There is so much professional expertise available locally and
internationally that the librarian should tap these sources for training his staff. Through staff
exchange between his staff and those of other institutions, his staff should be able to gain
additional experience and knowledge from experienced hands in other library situation. Whether
it is university, public or special library, the need for proper training and development cannot be
Smith (1979) observed that an untrained man in the modern world may be a menace to the society. He is a quack; he knows only the “how”. Hence if there is any trouble anywhere, breakdown in machine or mistake in a ledger, all he can do is to fumble and patch up the trouble any-how, leading to a more serious breakdown or a greater confusion. Really, there is no place for the untrained worker or even the intelligent amateur.”
There is no doubt that training and development in its entirety is beneficial to both the employee
and the organization. The organization can better meet its goals by providing employees with new knowledge necessary for performing the job satisfactorily. When an employee also performs poorly, the reason may not be that he or she does not want to do the job well. What he/she needs is training.
STAFFING IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES
Aina (2004) stated that the human resource of any library constitutes an important component of the organization. Staffing an organization is a complex process. A well-trained and competent staffs are asset to any organization. The tasks involved in staffing an organization can be daunting. It includes the provision of job tasks for each staff to be recruited, requirements needed for each task, etc. The essential ingredients of staffing are recruitment, training/staff-development, career prospects, evaluation, etc.
The staff required in academic libraries need to have different competences. The most important staff is the professional librarians. These are supplemented by Para-professionals and other non-professional staff who may include clerical staff, finance officers, system analysts, administrative staff, cleaners, messengers and security staff.
The professional librarians are expected to provide leadership. They are graduates of library and information science. The tasks of professional librarians are usually intellectual not non-routine tasks. The professional librarians are expected to manage the library as an organization. The heads of libraries are assisted by other professional librarians who are in charge of divisions, departments and sections.
The professional librarians are expected to provide specialist information services to their clients. Many of the tasks performed by professional librarians are reference services, cataloguing,
selection and acquisition of library materials, selective dissemination of information and current awareness services, etc.
The Para-professional staff usually possesses qualifications beyond Secondary School Certificate or its equivalent, plus qualifications in library and information science such as diploma. They assist the professional librarians. While their tasks may not be intellectual in most cases, they may be involved in routine tasks. This cadre of library staff usually heads small units of libraries. They perform supervisory roles. They also assist professional library staff in some other intellectual tasks, such as reference services, cataloguing, current awareness services, etc.
In many University Libraries, a large portion of the total employees comprised non-professional staff. Kao (1998) estimated that library non-professional staff comprises two third (2/3) of the total staff in University Libraries and many of them hold essential responsibilities in the library’s day-to-day operation.
In the same vein, Oberg (2004) stated that non-professional or support staff constitute the largest force of library tasks and perform tasks that might not be directly related to library activities, such as clerical work but complimentary to library tasks. They are also involved in library tasks such as bibliographic searching, charging and discharging of library materials, filing of cards, copy cataloguing, shelving, etc.
Ibrahim (2001) also stated that the non-professional staffs in academic library do the routine activities and they help immensely in the running of the affairs of the library. The educational qualifications of this cadre of staff are school certificate or equivalent qualifications plus certificates in library training such as Library Officer (L.O.), Assistant Library Officer (ALO), Senior Library Officer (SLO), etc.
Akhidime (1980) wrote on the Ahmadu Bello University Libraries junior staff training programme which is being studied. He emphasised how this category of library staff (non-professional) require a great deal of training in order to perform their duties reasonably well. He went on to say that this category of staff can use successful completion of the course as a substitute for formal education achievement, as a requirement for promotion in addition to good service records as the procedure is in the Kashim Ibrahim Library.
Reevely (1976) wrote on the training of non-professional staff in a Nigerian academic library. She stated that some major reasons for establishing the programmes are as follow:-
1. To make the junior staff stays in library work (professionals). Mostly they feel their isn’t any interest in their future so they often move to other jobs.
2. To help them (non-professionals) offer efficient and adequate services in libraries where they work.
3. To help promote their professional and academic qualifications.
4. To help them get promotion on time for earning their living.
She emphasized on the difficulties of studying and passing the G.C.E exams by this category of staff and concluded that this training can help them to improve in their library operation and future career.
According to Martin (1970), in establishing training programmes, the following should be taken into consideration for avoidance of future problems and smooth running of the training programme:-
1. Identify training needs
2. Formulate training policy
3. Implement training processes
4. Assess training effectively
The above four points, according to him, will help in achieving the main goals of the training. Also, the working organization will be improved by the staff in training. He further remarked that the library or institution offering the training should apply its own principles especially to the staff in training since they are being trained for the job there. He goes on to emphasize that the staff learn best when they are interested. According to him,” where there is no satisfaction to reward performance there is little interest, where there is little interest both learning and performance are poor. Therefore, the basic principle of any training first should be to involve the staff (learner) to make learning active and rewarding.