TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Aim and Objectives
1.5 Purpose of the study
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Organization of the Research
1.9 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: Review of the Related Literature
2.1.1Overview of Business Process Management (BPM)
2.2History of Business Process Management
2.3 Steps for Business Process Management
2.4 Challenges of Effectively Managing Business Processes
2.5Taking Control of Your Business Processes
2.6Approaches to BPM
2.7 Change Management and Implementation
2.7.1The 8 Step Change Model
2.8 Business Automation Using Robots
2.8.1 Various Ways Organization Respond to Challenges of
2.9 Use of Business Process Automation within Small Businesses
2.9.1 BPM Awareness within Small Businesses
2.9.2 BPM Approaches in Small Businesses
2.9.3 BPM Tools and Techniques for Small Businesses
2.10 Current Technology Trends and BPM
2.10.1 Is Cloud BPM Secured Enough?
2.10.2 The Most Predominant Automated Technology in Use Today
2.11 Reasons to Automate Your Process
2.12 Getting Started on a Business Process Automation Project
2.12.1 Electronic Invoicing
2.12.2 Automated Stock Management
2.13 Automation in E-Commerce System
2.13.1 Sampling of Where E-Commerce Automation Works Best
2.14 Risk of BPM and Management
CHAPTER THREE: Methodology and System Analysis
3.2 Analysis of the Existing System
3.3 Problems of the Existing System
3.3.1 Among Other Limitations of the Existing Systems are
3.4 Analysis of the Proposed System
3.5 Benefits of the Proposed System
CHAPTER FOUR: Design, Testing and Implementation
4.1 System Design
4.1.1 Workflow Design
4.1.2 Flowchart Design
4.1.3 The New System Design Interface
4.2 Choice of Languages for Business Process Automation
4.2.1 Web Services Description Language (WSDL)
4.2.2 Unified Modeling Language (UML)
4.2.3 Business Process Executable Language (BPEL)
4.2.4 Business Process Modeling Language (BPML)
4.3 System Testing
4.5 Conversion Strategies
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Business Process Management (BPM) is the discipline that combines knowledge from information technology and knowledge from management sciences and applies this to operational business processes (Wil, 2013). It includes methods, techniques, and tools to support the design, enactment, management, and analysis of operational business processes. Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in Business Process Management (BPM). Practitioners have been using BPM technologies to model, improve, and enact business processes.
The demands of good business practices, competition and government regulation constantly push companies to reexamine, update, modernize or replace their business processes (David , 2006). Efficient and effective business processes that meet changing conditions can distinguish an organization from its competition and can be key differentiators.
Business processes often evolve iteratively, beginning as manual, undocumented procedures. As the business environment becomes more complex, a business must continually evolve its processes to remain competitive.
BPM is set to automate all the manual processes which are very tedious, time consuming and inefficient. These manual business operations have been for a while until recently when the dominance of Information Technology began to gain strength in business administration due to its strategic and dynamic management approach. The goal of business remains the same; automation is a means to achieve them with more convenience.
Automating business processes presents a lot of benefits to business managers which are driving their business growth. Its dynamicity has made it to respond to different business needs without compromising accuracy. The greater advantage of the system is its parallelism in handling of business transactions. This parallelism made it to be a time saving system. Speed is achieved through concurrency; a lot of transactions can be carried out at different points of the integrated system at an instance of time without any hiccups.
At the core of the benefits of the automated business system is the efficient data management (easy storage and retrieval of data), which is of greater purpose to business managers. Timely and accurate business reports help managers in decision making and prediction of future occurrences in their business. At the flexibility it offers, core business data and reports can be generated at any place at any point in time. This helps to avoid error in reports as there is none or minimal human intervention in generating this critical business reports that aids in effective decision making.
Automated: is the routine or mundane activities that are performed by computers, whenever possible, for the sake of speed and reliability. Both business and technical in nature, IT processes are a subset of business processes and provide support to larger processes involving both people and machines. End-to-end business processes depend on distributed computing systems that are both transactional and collaborative. Process models may therefore comprise network models, object models, control flows, message flows, business rules, metrics, exceptions, transformations and assignments.
Cost saving is one of the effective impact of automated business systems in running business organizations. With the automated system, the amount of resources consumed in running some administrative affairs of the organization is minimized as the number of experts needed to be employed is reduced. In small businesses that have little resources, they need not to employ highly skillful professionals that require a higher paycheck. They only need an average individual that have the knowledge of the automated system, because the system has taken care of the critical processes.
There have been a poor adoption and low proliferation of these automated business system amidst all the benefits it offers in promoting businesses. The few adoption is by the fortune companies and large businesses while the SMEs are being left behind. In view of this, there are some perceived reasons for poor adoption of this system especially by SMEs. Designing the system dynamically to suite different sizes of business with different nature and resources would be the only way for massive adoption.
The major challenges faced by businesses (especially SMEs) are the cost of operating this automated systems and risk management. It's obvious that small businesses does not need all the fully integrated modules of automated systems, therefore these businesses will be analyzed to know the core modules that are needed by them to enhance their productivity. Such modules like automated invoicing, stock management system, and decision aided system, etc are the core modules that will enhance their growth efficiently while at the same time reducing cost and risk.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Business environment has become more complex and evolved in its processes. Businesses are inundated with lots of iterative operations which takes most of their work hours without much contribution to their growth. Manually operating these tedious and time consuming activities in a competitive business world slows down processes and places one behind one’s counterparts.
It takes more effort and physical space to keep track of paper documents, to find information and to keep details secure. When mistakes are made or changes or corrections are needed, often a manual transaction must be completely redone rather than just updated. With manual or partially automated systems information often has to be written down and copied or entered more than once. Systemization can reduce the amount of duplication of data entry.
None of the numerous business processes is worth despising irrespective of their contributions towards growth and expansion, rather automation is the solution for optimization and improved operations, hence the purpose of this work; design and implementation of automated business process management.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this research work is to design an automated business process management system to effectively and efficiently handle business operations and quality control of flow of execution.
The objectives of the research work are listed below:
i. To achieve efficiency in business management.
ii. To reduce cost and increase revenue.
iii. To increase customer satisfaction.
iv. To save time through concurrency.
v. To achieve professionalism in business ethics.
vi. To reduce error and inaccuracy.
vii. To diversify interest in other core business processes.
viii. To achieve growth and expansion.
As information technology evolves, it changes the way we do business thereby putting new demand on business organizations.
There is an impressive need to integrate different IT applications into our business model in order to meet up with these demands and sustain the business both for growth and expansion. The researcher is motivated by the benefits and advancements the above integrated IT applications will offer businesses of different sizes for efficient operations.
1.5 Purpose of the Study
Each advancement in technology creates a new business process which is very imperative for any organization to generate leads and satisfy their customers.
The evolution of social media leads to social media marketing, Electronic mail leads to email marketing and customer relations through e-invoicing, e-commerce and online payment systems also leads to new method and approach which is different from the former.
Manually handling of these new innovations together with other traditional business practices like stock management, invoicing, accounting, etc. can be far from reality.
This research work is set to study how BPM can be used to automate different business process cycles, so that different subroutines can be carried out automatically for efficient business management. The analysis for the critical factors for implementation is carried out from the initial to the final stage of the system development.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study provides detailed information about business process automation and how different businesses can effectively implement it for efficient and strategic management.
It will help them to know which processes are suitable for automation with BPM?, What kind of BPM should be used and to which process?
What is essential for a company to succeed with BPM?
What are the critical factors for implementation?
In general, it provides an architectural guideline for the adoption and use of BPM.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this research work covers in detail automation with business process management system and how it can be adopted by any business organization irrespective of size and type.
1.8 Organization of the Research
This research work is organized into five chapters.
· Chapter one is concerned with the introduction of the research study and it presents the preliminaries, theoretical background, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.
· Chapter two focuses on the literature review, the contributions of other scholars on the subject matter are to be discussed.
· Chapter three is concerned with the system analysis and methodologies. It analyzes the present system to identify the problems and provides information on the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system.
· Chapter four presents the system design, implementation and documentation. The system development flowcharts, choice of programming language and procedures for implementation.
· Chapter five focuses on the summary, conclusion and recommendations based on the study carried out.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Automation: the use of computer software and applications to control machine and event processes.
Business: Commercial, industrial, or professional activity.
Cloud: The Internet, regarded as an abstract space for processing and storage, the focus of cloud computing.
Database Management System (DBMS): a data structure for storage and retrieval of information.
E-commerce: Commercial activity conducted via the Internet.
Encryption: The process of securing information to make it unreadable without special knowledge, key files, and/of passwords.
Enterprise: A company, business, organization, or other purposeful endeavor.
Information Technology (IT): The practice of creating and/or studying computer systems and applications.
Management: The effective use of resources to achieve a goal or accomplish an end.
Manual: controlling activities by human energy and interventions.
Model: A simplified representation used to explain the workings of a real world system or event.
Organization: A group of people or other legal entities with an explicit purpose and written rules.
Process: A series of activities to produce a result, especially as contrasted to product.
Risk: A possible, usually negative, outcome.
Robot: A machine built to carry out some complex task or group of tasks, especially one which can be programmed.
Small and Medium Enterprise (SME): a business within a specified range like net worth or number of employees according a particular country.
Stakeholder: A person or organization with a legitimate interest in a given situation, action or enterprise.
Workflow: A process and/or procedure in which tasks are completed.