This project was carried out
using coal sample from Onyeama coal mine Enugu, Enugu State. Activated
coal was produced by carbonizing the coal and activating it using phosphoric
acid at a temperature of 5500c.
the degree of bleaching of raw palm oil was monitored using spectronic meter
through absorbance measurement. The essence was to identify suitability
of the coal as a bleaching agent on palm oil. Comparison of the result
obtained was made with the commercial fuller’s earth.
From the result obtained that
0.45mm, 0.18mm and <0.075mm particle size of the activated coal was used at
size and at variable temperature of 1200c,
1600c and 2000c
were carried out, the average percented colour absorption for the activated
coal from Enugu was found to be 80, 81 and 89 respectively. This, the
optimal particle size, temperature and weight was obtained to be 0.18mm 2000c and log/100ml of palm oil respectively.
Further it was identified that
the smaller the particle size of the activated coal, the higher the percentage
It was also observed that the
temperature has a large effect on the bleaching of palm using coal. This
percentage colour reduction increase as the temperature increases.
It could be conclude that
coal is a poor absorber though if activated properly can used as a bleasching.
2.0 CHAPTER TWO
Historical origin of coal
Historical development of activated carbon
Formation of coal
Classification of coal
Properties of coal
Physical properties of coal
Uses of coal
Coal activation process
Use at activated carbon
Use at activated carbon
3.0 CHAPTER THREE
Equipment and apparatus used
Characterization of activated coal
Determination of bulk density and porosity
Characterization of oil sample (bleached)
Iodine value (IV)
Free fatty acid/acid value (A.V)
Etherification value (S.V)
Peroxide value (P.V)
Determination of melting point of palm oil
Determination of bolting point of palm oil
4.0 CHAPTER FOUR
Table 4.1 determination of density and porosity
Table 4.2 sieve analysis table
Table 4.3 spectranic reading of the unbleached oil
Table 4.4 bleaching effect of activated coal
Table 4.6 iodine value
Table 4.7 specification value
Table 4.8 acid value
Table 4.9 peroxide value
Concise table characterization of activated coal and bleached oil
5.0 CHAPTER SIX
Recommendation and conclusion
Synthesis of coal activated carbon from coal involves the
production of activates carbon from coal and the use of it as on adsorbent or
adsorptive material which is used in bleaching processes.
An adsorptive material or
adsorbent is this a solid which is able to adsorb a considerable amount of gas
or liquid. The gas or liquid been adsorbed is referred to as the
adsorbed. Adsorbed material may occur nature all or may be prepared
The naturally occurring
carbonados material such as coal, wood, coconut shell or bones are decomposed
in an inert atmosphere at a temperature of about 500k. the product will
not be porous so it will need additional treatment or activation to generate a
system of fine pores. The carbon can be produced in the activated state
by treating the raw material with chemical like zinc chloride or phosphoric
acid before carbonizing.
Activated carbon has a surface
area, typically of 106 m2/kg mostly associated with a set of pores
about 2nm in diameter. Though there is likely to be another set of
pores about 100nm in diameter, not contributing much the surface area.
Activated carbon may be used as
a powder, in which from it is mixed in with the liquid to be treated, and
then removed by filtration. It is also be used in granular form.
Hence by carefully choosing the
starting material and the activated process it can be possible to generate in
carbon a pore system with a narrow spore of pore size. This activated
carbon can be synthesized from coal.
The scope/objective of this
project word according to the topic “synthesis of coal activated carbon from
Enugu using any available method of production, vertical, rotary, horizontal
and fluidized bed method could be used in the
production of the activated carbon from the coal.
It is also limited to the
product of activated carbon in powdery form and by synthetic chemical process
(using zinc chloride and phosphoric acid). Thus any of the above method
could also be used for the carbonization any gasification processes.
The activated carbon produced
can be used for dry-cleaning solvent in pharmaceuticals, sugar decolorizing
drinking water purification and above all edible oil and fat refining.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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