Adhesive is a substance that holds materials together by surface
attachment, while wood adhesive is a substance that is used to hold plywood for
furniture works. This substance is essential and has universal applications.
Thus the aim of this research work is to produce it using cassava starch as a
base binder. Starch is also used in industries to produce ethanol and glucose
for textile industries, laundry and paper adhesive industries.
It is of great importance to
paper, wood and furniture industries and the need to produce a more stable
adhesive locally to minimize cost remains the investigating factor for
embarking on this research work.
The method of wood adhesive
production used in this work was the questionnaire work was the geletinization
method. In the production, the optimum geletinization temperature was found to
be 800c while the optimum temperature
of dextrin formation is 1400c. The
production involves the souring of the starch from cassava, determination of
the various additives employed in the production. The materials used in the
production works were sourced in line with the objectives of the research. The
following components were used: starch extracted from cassava which is
responsible for the adhesion force that holds two bodies together, calcium
carbonate (CaCo3) for
viscosity improvement, formaddehyde as preservative, natrosol cellulose as a
thicker and water as solvent.
Experimental analysis was based
on all the factors that influence the stability of an adhesive example pH
values, viscosity, tack time, boarding strength etc. the values obtained were
compared with the standard brands and were found to compare favourably with
other standard adhesives.
Formulation B showed the most
desirable characteristics and hence is the optimum sample.
An adequate cost analysis was
also carried out to determine the feasibility of the project on a commercial
venture. Thus, a locally sourced product (wood adhesive) that can complete with
similar product in terms of properties but at a much reduced cost was produced.
The shelf life and teak time of the product were determined and found to be
good. The wood adhesive was established to be water resistant.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Historical background (preamble)
1.2 Meaning of adhesive
1.3 Aims and objectives
1.4 The scope of the project
LITERATURE REVIEW (SURVEY)
2.1 Historical report on adhesives.
2.2 Starch adhesive.
2.4 Classification of adhesive.
2.5 Factors considered when selecting a wood
2.6 Advantages and limitations of the adhesives with
respect to mechanical fasteners.
2.7 Adhesion and cohesion.
2.8 Components of adhesives
2.10 Physical properties of starch
2.11 Chemical properties of starch
2.12 Degr isolation of starch
2.13 Adation of starch
2.14 Gelatinisation of starch.
2.18 Components Of Starch Adhesives And Their Functions
MATERIALS AND DMETHOD FOF ANALYSIS.
3.1 Source of materials
3.2 This research work involves.
3.2.1 Extraction of starch from
3.2.2 Production of wood adhesive
from cassava starch.
220.127.116.11 Bonding Strength Determination
18.104.22.168 Melting Point Determination
22.214.171.124 Spreadability Test
Solid content determination
Moisture content determination
Resistance to moiture.
Shelf life test.
126.96.36.199 Tack time determination
3.2 Packaging and storage
3.3 Comparing the product with the standard set
RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Experimental Results
with Standards: Parameters for Ranges of Wood Adhesives.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Technology has played an important role in man’s development and
thus, has helped to shape the world as it is seen today. This could be seen in
all facets of industrial ventures, hence the introduction of new products into
Man’s growing desire to hold two or more substance together by
surface attachment so that they can be used a s a single piece coupled with the
technological advancement has given birth to a broad range of adhesive
production to serve this purpose.
The technique of adhesive bonding has come of age. It is not
possible to say when the practice was first developed and used. From history,
history made us to believe that the first adhesive even made or used by man was
probably clay, animal glue and resinous exudates from trees, of which is known
to go back a very long way over 3300 years ago.
The Egyptians used vegetable glue adhesives in wood works and in
the production of Papyri. It was during the 19th century
that there was technological advancement which led to the sourcing and production
of varieties of adhesive. In 1912, F.G Parkins found out that starch could be
converted by mild caustic soda solution into a liquid glue that was stable at
Most of the popular adhesive currently in use in the country are
imported as such the clamour for adhesive that are locally produced has been on
primary concern for embarking on this project. It is the aim of this project to
produce wood adhesive from local raw materials using maize or corn or cassava
as the case study or reference study. Though starch can be extracted from
plants for example corn, barley, wheat and potatoes and cassava but for
simplicity sake have to be reduced to maize and cassava.
1.6 MEANING OF ADHESIVE
There is no universally accepted definition of adhesive, however
an adhesive is defined by its usage. It could be defined a substance capable of
holding materials together by surface attachment.
The need to hold two or more substances together by surface
attachment so that they can be used as a single piece without damage done to
the adherents and with more uniform distribution of stress calls for the
production of adhesive. Adhesive development has evolved into a field
practically on its own, where the market for more specialized adhesives has emerged.
They are now used for a variety of purposes ranging from packaging
materials, book binding, hold wood together, brake lining, where they would
have reduced surface to surface contact required. The reasons for joining these
surfaces is the get a composite is to effect every handling and create a better
The working properties of the different adhesives vary therefore
various methods were used to obtain an adhesive to serve a defined purpose.
1.7 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
a. Because of the growing need for adhesive in our
industries, it is the aim of this project to produce wood adhesive from local
b. It seeks to utilize our available resources that
are abundant in nature and cheap to secure.
c. It is also aimed at producing wood adhesive for
our industries so that we can achieve self and economic reliance by reducing
our dependence on imported variety or foreign adhesive.
d. It also helps to create employment for
unemployed youths since adhesive industry does not require complex machinery.
1.8 THE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The research work involves the extraction from a locally sourced
material for simplicity sake, adhesive formulation under different production
condition, to determine the effects of varying production composition on the
production. The project would also involve the analysis of the formulation
gotten. It also determines the cost of production per annum of small scale
Comparison between standard (wood adhesive gotten from the market)
and that produced from this project. It is done by detailed analyst of the
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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