The main area covered by this project was a research into the
desirability of using locally obtained rubber later as loinder in paint
Considering the huge amount of money being spent on the
importation of PVac (Poly vingl acetate) which is widely used as binder for
paint manufacturing the efforts of this project cannot be over –
emphasized. Going though this project, it will be agreed that a gaint
stride has been made towards the reduction of foreign exchange being siphoned
out of the country through the importation of Pavc for paint manufacturing.
The natural rubber later used for this purpose was collected from
Ozozo forest Rubber plation in Delta State. This later will naturally
coagulate within 4 – 2,4 house, if unpreserved, therefore the later used for
this project was preserved with an anti – coagulant (Ammonia) to avoid
coagulation. Experiments carried out on this later exposed some of its
characteristics. Naturally a freshly tapped Rubber later will have a PH
of between 6.8-7.0, but because of the ammonia used in the preservation the PH
was found to be 10.97. Another property of the later which affect the
pigment volume concentration (PVC) of paints coating is the dry rubber content
or the total solid content which was found through experiment to be 42%.
The normal process of paint manufacturing was employed.
Shere were two samples of paints produced each differing from the other by the
weight of either PVAC or the rubber later used. One sample made of PVAC
as a binder was regarded as standard and the other one with rubber later as
binder compared with it.
In each case the binder was added last since it is known that it
will not withstand the high shear stress developed in the machine during
The PH of the various samples were 8.1 and 10.15 accordingly.
The second sample with rubber later as binder has a PH value
outside the standard PH.
The paint produced can be compared with the standard favourably.
Difficulty encountered during the formulation include the
inability of Natrosol to dissolve due to delay in pouring the dissolved
natrosol in the water faskly and then pour into the other dispersed
components. This however was poured off and new formulation made which
game the desired result.
The binder power in PVA formulation is much better an concise with
that of standard point and it has greater fitness.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2)
Lithopone ZnS. BaSo4
Calcium carbonate (CaCa3)
Clay (Aluminum silicate)
Protective colloids or
Anti – form agent or
and characteristic of rabber later
Preservation of rubber latex
Short team preservative
Dry rubber content (solid
Factors guiding formulation
Binder and vehicle characteristics
Pigment volume concentration (PVC)
Pigment to binder ration
PH of coating
process and equipment
High speed disperser (cowlese)
The origin of paint and painting started thousands of yeas ago.
It can be rightly said that the desire to decorate their mummies
sparked of this concept in Egypt around 15,000.
Since then, this practice has gradually developed through many
stages until modern concept of paint and painting came into being. This
modern concept was brought about by gradual transformation from old materials
and methods of paint making to the use of synthetic material and more modern
During these early years, the paints were only used on mammies,
cares and tombs for the purposes of decorating them only. But now the
modern use of paint serves the dual purpose of decoration as well as preventing
the substrate on which it is applied. Because of this dual manufactured
to meet a specified condition by the use of modern equipment and synthetic
Here in Nigeria, the first modern paint industry was established
in 1962, and today we have more than 100 of such industries all using entirely
imported materials and equipment for the purposes of producing paint.
Considering the staggering amount of foreign exchange the
importation of these materials and equipment by the 100 industries will be
directed towards the production of some of these raw materials within the
Rubber hater which is a product of hevea brasiciensis tree
extensively grown in the western part of the country can be use as a binder in
paint formulations against the PAVC which is currently being imported. It
is believed that if these persistent calls from both government and individuals
for proper heamessment of local raw materials for our local industries are as
serious as they want the public to believe, then initial effort should be
towards the use of natural rubber later as a brinder for paint manufacturing as
there is sure evidence that it will succeed.
Meanwhile the first slot has been fired in this direction by this
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