study is a research into “An Evaluation of Product Positioning on Unilever
The study seeks to find out how product positioning helps the firms in
achieving greater part of its sales objectives.
In an attempt to carryout the study effectively, a total sample of seven firms
were judgmentally selected.
This sample random sampling technique and chi-square statistical tools was used
for this study.
i. From the analysis of the data, it was deduced
that the selected firms consider the application of product positioning as very
important part of firm’s sales objectives.
ii. The selected firms also used product positioning
to achieve their aims.
iii. The firms marketing operations are regionally
structured. However, it was noted that the firms is selling to all the
the following suggestion were seen:
a. There should be adequate provision of funds.
b. The firm should engage more effort to train
their sales executives.
c. They should improve on advertising and other
sales promotion mix.
d. Lastly, the issue of transportation and
distribution facilities should be improved.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Objective of the
1.4 Scope of the
1.5 Formulation of Hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Definition of
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Meaning and Scope of Product Position Strategies
2.2 Bases for Position A
2.3 Types of Positioning Strategy
2.4 Product Positioning
2.5 Enveloping of positioning Strategies
2.6 Evaluation of positioning
2.7 Communicating The Company’s Positioning
3.1 Sources data
3.2 Determination of sample size customers
3.4 Research instrument used
3.5 Validation of research instruments
3.6 Questionnaire allocation and administration
3.7 Method of data treatment an analysis
3.8 Limitation of the study
4.1 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS
4.2 TESTING OF
SUMMARY, AND FINDING CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of Findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In marketing, positioning has come to mean the process by which marketers try
to create an image or identify in the mind of their target market for its
product, brand or organization. It is the relative competitive comparison their
product occupies in a given market as perceived by the target market.
What we must agree as is that positioning is something that happens in the
minds of the target market. It is the aggregate perception that market
has of a particular company, product or service in relation to their perception
of the competitors in the same category it will happen whether or not company
managements is productive, reactive or passive about the on-going process of
evolving a position Ries and Trout explain that while positioning begins with a
product, the concept really is about positioning that product in the mind of
the customer. This approach is needed because consumers are bombarded
with a continuous stream of advertising, the easiest way of getting into
someone’s mind is to be first. It is very easy to remember who is first, and
much more difficult to remember who is second. Even if the second entrant
offers a better product, the first mover has a large advantage that can make up
for other shortcomings.
Product positioning refers to the place on offering occupies in consumers mind
on important attributes relatives to competing offerings. The essence of
positioning is to sell consumers something unique, different or distinctive
about our product, which is different from what the competitor offer we want
our target segment to think in terms of our total product occupying a distinct
or different position as is the case when athletes are running in a race and
are positioned in which competitor must strive to occupy or attain rewarding
Position is a marketing strategy whereby the marketer associates his product
with specific and unique benefits, which he wants consumer to perceive as being
different and better than those of his competitors. Positioning has to
take up place in the perception and mind of his competitors, if the consumer
does not have this perception in his mind no positioning has occurred.
For positioning to occur the target segment must see the company’s product as
being unique in what it promises them in relation to those of competitors.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Generally a great number of
problems confront the application of product positioning. To desirable
product positioning does not seem different but to put the description into
practice is not easy. Some of the problems however are particularly about
product positioning in unilever Nigeria plc. Some of the these problems
are stated in the work with the purpose of finding solution to them.
The ability of the firm to classify these customers group.
According to the uniqueness in purchases. The company based their
positioning on their product rather their based on customers/ consumers and
their needs. The company also go about boasting about being number one
and by doing so the customer will think that the firm is insecure in its
position if it must reinforce it by saying so. The company don’t know
what that change is inevitable and a leader must be willing to embrace to
carryout marketing survey and research because there is not provision to know
how effective their strategy is and how customers responded to their products.
1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
the marketing philosophy pointed, out, every marketing oriented firm
organization has the primary duty of not only making sales for the company but
for the identification of customers need and planning to satisfy their
customer need at a profit to the firm.
For the purpose of this work, it is therefore very important to review the
strategy and offering of organization with a view to finding how effective such
strategy and offering are meeting the objectives of the organization that is
applying them. If is the light of this that this work outlines the
i. To known what product positioning is al about as
if involves the companies under study.
ii. To know actually the company or organization
actually applies positioning in the sales of its product.
iii. Also, to know how the company’s sales is
structured. This could be geographically, regionally or customer
structured and if it can determine or know its target customers.
iv. The other objective of this study is also to
know the method or strategy the company actually uses in performing its
v. Also the evaluation of product positioning
strategies is achieving the firms goals as well as host of the others.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
study covers all aspect of product positioning as an instrument for achieving
organizational objectives as a whole. The population of this study is all
Unilever Nigeria Plc. However due to time and financial constraints, a
survey of selected and financial constraints, a survey of selected branch in
Enugu will be conducted.
Therefore, the study sample has narrowed to Unilever Nigeria Plc in Enugu,
which the research believe is representative of the entire
1.5 FORMULATION OF THE HYPOHESIS
For the purpose of this work, the following research hypothesis are formulated
and need adequate attention hence, they will be subject to test to
reliability and authority.
H0i: The firm does use positioning to
achieve greater part of their objectives.
Hn2: The firm uses positioning to
achieve greater part of her objectives.
The firm marketing operation are
not regionally structured.
H02: The firm marketing operation are
H03: The firm can not find a way to
position itself in relation to the market leaders.
H03: The firm finds his way to position
itself in relation to the market leaders.
H04: The firm is not willing to embrace
change rather they resist it.
H04: The firm must be willing to embrace
change rather than resist it.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
They study on the positioning is very significance because many companies and
organization have had of the lack of ideas to produce positioning. This work
would provide marketing / sales managers of companies and organizations in the
state and country at large, with the useful tools for designing and accessing
the efficacy of their positioning programmes.
This study is very significant and justifiable in that product
positioning and identification target markets by organization realization
turnover ratio of organization as well as development sales .
Finally, this research in this direction thereby lagging foundation for other
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