- Product planning enhances brand image of NBC
- Effective product planning by NBC increase
The researcher, therefore made the following recommendation.
- The company should know how to enhance their
- The company should recruit highly skilled staff
and adequate training so as to faces the challenges of other company in
planning and developing the company products.
- The management should find out the seasons which
demand for the company product are at its peak level.
- The company should add some distinct quality in
their soft drink production so as to differentiate the taste of their product
from that of competitors.
1.0 Introduction/Background of the Study
1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Objectives of the Study
1.3 Hypothesis Formulation
1.4 Scope of the Study
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Definition of the Terms
2.0 Meaning of Product
2.1 Product Classification
2.2 Product Planning and Development
2.3 Decision Areas in Product Planning
2.4 The function of product planning
2.5 New Product
2.6 Planning for New Products
2.7 The Expanding Duties of the Product Manager.
2.8 Product Attributes
2.9 Product Positioning
2.10 Physical Distribution
2.11 Physical Distribution Objective
2.12 Distribution Channels
2.13 Selecting Channels of Distribution
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Source of Data
3.2 Research Design and Methodology
3.3 Population of Study
3.4 Sample Size and Determination
3.5 Sample Technique
3.6 Instruments For Data Collection
3.7 Validation of Instrument
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.1 Hypothesis Testing
5.1 Discussion of Result
5.2 Discussion of Finding
1.1 INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Product planning is the originating evaluation and development of
new ideas that can be profitable sold in the market place (Markins 1979).
A product is anything that can be offered to a market for
attention acquisition, use or consumption that might satisfy a want or need
include physical objects, services, persons, organization and ideas (Kotler
A product can also define as a set of tangible and intangible
attribution that leads to customer satisfaction (Stanton 1981) in fundamentals
In the light of the above therefore, product planning embraces all
the activities that enable a company to determine what product it will market.
Management deals with “all those who have supervisory responsibility ranging
from the chief executive down to the first line supervisor. In this case,
management is regarded as a box that is those who direct the work of others and
their own work through their own effort and efforts of others.”
Thus, product planning and management comprises all the activities
that enable a firm to determine what it will market or produce so as to satisfy
customers wants and needs respectively. This involves the “process of
effectively planning and regulating the operation of that part of on enterprise
which is responsible for the actual transformation of materials into finished
product.” This includes all the activities required in storage and distribution
of the company’s goods. This addresses the question of which of the channels a
seller should select for his product.
Which particular middleman to include in each channel type. How to
manage the distribution system for affective performance.
The company should know the degree of channel control desired by
controlling the channel, the producer attempts to ensure that his product did
receive the necessary sales as well as any other essential elements needed to
present the product properly and satisfy and customers. The company or firm
should make necessary effort to control the quality of the product.
The quality level to be built into the product is a conscious
decision to be made by the manufacturer. A higher quality product normally is
more costly to produce than a lower quality one, and so commands a higher price
on the market. The quality level decision therefore should be related to the
price range that will be attractive to the main stream of potential buyers.
Quality is multi-faceted, it relates to or depends on such factors
as the quality of raw material used, the production process itself, quality
contend during production, packaging or dressing of the product, price of the
product, the environment in which the product is displayed for buyers. The
durability of the product is use and the buyers expectation and appreciation.
In general, product quality tends to be high to the extend that any of the
above factor’s is good. The quality producer has be in line with demand at a
particular point in time so as to fight against “out of stock” or “over
stock”. The firm has to be watchful at any point in time so as to produce,
when to produce for (the target market) and why such a product is required.
The base goal of product management is to ensure that a product
matches the wants and needs of consumers in its market. (D. Sehewe and M. Smith
1980 page 286).
Too many markets make the mistake of thinking that consumers feel
and act as they do and share their wants, invalid assumptions on the part of
marketer’s results to marketing failures previously about an hundred years ago,
there was few producers, the sellers, oriented type of market was preventing
consumer out weighted the number of producers and little or no regard we paid
to consumers welfare. Production concept is the entire set of benefits
the product provides to the consumer. No attention was paid to product packaging
prodding, product quality and other important physical attribute of a product.
As time went on, more and more producer came into the market. This
gave rise to competition among the available producers. Consumption was based
on good packaging, brand image, product quality, convenience etc. this is know
as product concept in marketing philosophy. It is this situation that forced
manufactures to spend time in product, packaging, labeling, branding
Now, advancement in both technology and communication as well as production
equipment introduced into the circulation makes the market more complicated.
This is the era that brought abut marketing concept. Here manufactures and
producers first of all go out to find really the needs and wants of consumer,
then the most admirable type, colour, package, design, branding and labeling
that will best suit the desire of the potential and actual consumers of the
product. Product planners must try to match the firm’s resources i.e. (what it
is capable of producing with the men, money, machines and materials it has. The
needs of consumer satisfaction and highest company profits can be achieved.
Because of the sophisticated nature of today’s business, many tactics are being
applied by different companies to fight back competition and to stand firmly in
the market. Many new products are constantly being introduced into the market,
innovations are seriously do their job, old and profitable products are
modernized while some are deleted out of the market. Companies use special and
admirable package design good branding and beautiful types of labeling to
distinguish their products form many similar products in circulation in market.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
Research problem as an interrogative statement which ask about the
pressure relationship between two or more variable that creates particular
state of affairs (Ngadi 1984).
In this study the researcher will be concerned with the following problems.
The problem of understanding the concept of product planning and distribution.
Types of product system and planning available.
The effect of product planning and distribution on the organization as it
affects management objectives.
This work is intending to assess critically the operation of product planning
i. What is product planning and distribution.
ii. What is mechanism are employed in fluting its
iii. What are the functions of product planning and
iv. What are the problem and prospects product
planning and distribution.
v. What are the product and distribution planning
tools available to NBC plc.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.
The research objective is intended to what may be regarded as
management objective. It is orderly and efficient conduct of business of the
enterprise where product planning and distribution comes in a part of ineffective
control in business organization.
To understand the idea of product planning, product distribution and its cycle.
- To know system, planning and distribution.
- To apprehend the effect of product distribution
and planning as it relates to management objectives.
1.4 HYPOTHESES FORMULATION
Ho: product planning does not enhance NBC marketing performance.
Hi : product planning enhances NBC marketing performance.
Ho: effective product planning by NBC increase consumer patronage.
Hi: effective product planning by NBC does not increase consumer
Ho: product planning enhance brand image of NBC products.
Hi: product planning does not enhance brand Image for NBC product.
To do this, the study is aimed with information gathered from extensive
literature review as a base. The main objective of this study is to investigate
certain problem usually associated with product planning, distribution and
management in NBC plc which require a proposal of remedial measure after
revealing area of the problem.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers the Nigerian Bottling Company Plc Enugu, the
3. Fanta quinine and orange
4. Krest Bitter lemon
5. Tonic water.
6. Club Suda.
The researcher based on their write-up on NBC plc, producer of
Coca-Cola which is the first product planning, distribution and management.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study has immense significance. The result of this research
work will aid the shareholders to know that their company has what it takes to
grow into a big firm through enhanced macro-economic policies.
As the firm grows so also the capital base expands. The
shareholders enjoy good returns on the capital they invested in the firm. It
also increase the profit of the company thereby making ways for higher
dividends to the shareholders. Break through in technology is what keeps a firm
viable strong and going. Getting technical assistance or innovative
technical maneuver is one of the importance of research study on a firm as gets
the shareholders intimated on the technical ability of the firm. The study will
reveal at what capacity the firm is operating that is, if it is at full
capacity at which it was intended and if not why?
The research study reveal the need for diversification by the firm
especially where a market is saturated and the need for product diversification
remains inevitable. The out come of the study will guides the shareholder in
their decision making. The research study equally helps the government to know
what problems or difficulties that are impeding the firms growth and possible
ways of assisting her to come out of the woods. It gives the government some
clues on the modus-operand of the firm in question and firms in similar line of
business and what government polities are applicable to them. So as to render
some assistance so that the atmosphere could be conductive for the firm to
compete favorable with its competitors. It also helps the government in
determining taxes from the company.
Researchers or research institution see it as a way of
contributing to the all solution seeking method of addressing the nasty
economic problem prevalent in the country. All completed research work is
celebrated because in it lies all the prospects problem and solutions of the
organization in focus, if well implemented. The completed research itself now forms
a secondary data to other users who may have to recourse to it in future
studies in related studies.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following words and phrases used within the text of this
research are defined to reflect the Centex in which they are used to enable the
reader ascribe to them their proper meanings in the report.
- Product: is defined as a set of tangible
and intangible attributes that leads to customer satisfaction. (Stanton, 1981).
- Management: as “the art and science of
achieving the objectives of a business in the most efficient way.”
(Denyer, J.C 1976).
- Market: is defined as an arena for
potential exchanges (Adirika E. O 2001).
- Marketing: means the social and managerial
process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through
creating and exchanging products and values with other. (Kotler, 1989:12).
- Planning: is a continuous process that includes
situation analysis, specifying objectives and
the action required for attaining them. (Boone and Kurtz 1992).
- Distribution: a route take transferring the
title to a product (manufacturing or other wise) from it producer to its last
owner, an industrial user or the ultimate consumer (Adirika E.O 2001).
- Consumer: final user of a product ((Ifezue Alex
- Customer: a person who does not buy for his own
use he may buy for somebody for consumption (Ifezue Alex N. 1990).
- Brand: a name, term, sign, symbol, or design or
a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or service of one seller
or group of seller and differentiate them from those of competitors (Adirika
- Packaging: as the activities of designing and
producing the container or wrapper for a product (Adirika E.O 2001).
- Labeling: a piece of paper, cloth or plastic on
or beside an object and describing his nature, name, owner, destination etc.
(Oxford Advanced learner’s dictionary 5th edition).
- Selling: as the process of inducing and
assisting a prospective buyer to buy or act favourable on an offering, which
has problem solving advantages to the buyer and commercial significant to the
seller (Edogo R.N 1997).
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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