This project work was on the
impact of promotion on marketing of detergent product. A case study of pz
The objective of the study
include the following
To find out if pz industries
considered promotion as varitable tool for their product
To ascertain the impact of
promotion on the marketing of detergent with peculiar preference to elephant
extra detergent by pz industries
To also determine whether the
marketing communication media and channel used by pz industries in the market
of elephant extra detergent is generating future benefits
And to suggest of improving
promo tools campaign for pz industeis to enable them make effective promotion
of its goods and services
Based on these, the researcher made a critical analysi and evaluation of promo
tool used by industries within Enugu metropolis. And also reviewd related
material and used research instrument for the collection of primary and
The population of the study consist of the staff and the customer of pz
industries within Enugu metropolis. Data collected were used in formulation of
findings the researcher under the study used direct question and observation to
obtain information form the respondent. Form the obtain information. The
following findings and recommend were made.
That promotion has great impact on the promotion lead to increase in sales,
purchasing, steady growth and profit maximization of any firm.
And that no company can do without using promotion as one of their important
tools especially pz industries.
The following recommendation
The firm should increase the
Also, increase its marketing
Cleary define communication
Also, involve on product
research and development.
In conclusion, the impact of promotion on the marketing of detergent
product should be vital ingredient to spur the management of various detergent
firm into greater commitment toward the welfare of their customers. Interms of
product dissemination and development which satisfy customer needs and wants.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the study
Objective of the study
Significant of the study
Statement of problem
Scope of the study
Definition of terms
Review of the related
Conceptual background of promotion
Role of promotion in effective brand management
Critical analysis of the impact of promotion on marketing of elephant extra
Promotional competition among detergent firms
Promotion and its critism
Discussion of finding
Summary of finding,
recommendation and conclusion
Summary of findings
In the earlier days the partner
of salesmanship was cried because of the gap between productive and consumption
sectors of the society was small and manageable.
However in retrospect of the country economic history reviewd that there were
companies in the early 1960s and 1970s that actually made aggressive trust into
Nigeria market and as much there pioneer producer, in cause of this producers
were mainly concerned with the development of a good product and services to
satisfy the needs and the wants of the target market.
During the era of industrial revolution the world has grown into ocmpetion,
high level of economic and technological development have occasionally incrased
sophistication among both proderces and the consumer. This has resulted into
the widening of the gap between them have a challenge to both ends to device a
more appropriate method of improving the relationship between them.
According to Kotler 1993, page 12, the product concept which held that consumer
will favour those product that are widely available and low in price, managers
of production oriented organization concentrate on achieveing highly production
efficiency and distribution coverage. This concept of course eventually led to
the production of different kind of product in Nigerian markets.
It was really an economic of plenty were both the consumer and the distributors
have plenty monety to spend no matter the product condition. Consequently, one
of the major communication force that manifested to help bridge the gap between
the producer and the consumer was the act of promotion through it was low and
at the direction of the top management at a reduced cost control.
The early 1980s market the first decade of economic recession in the country
that led to change to a lower production capacity in the countries gross
national product (GNP). Oil price dropped sharply to unprecedented level and
different kind of trade restriction was introduced.
For instance federal government of Nigeria to restructure the economy
introduced structural adjustment programme (SAP). Companies as well as
individual started to geel the pinch, the recession, decreasing of wages,
rising prices of goods and service in position of tariff and taxes.
Having regard to the consumer dwinding deposable income and large amount of
goods produced and not produce, manufacturer started to realize the important
of promotion create awareness of their product and to persuade the consumers
and distributor channels, that their products are best in town that can satisfy
the need and want of the consumer of the target market.
Promotion becomes the whole integral part of our social and economic system but
has also grown over the years to assume tremendous proportion both as a
business activity and a social phenomenon. It has affected not only business
but also the whole security. Because of promotion influence people learned to
desire better product and services to take care of their health and to improve
their ways of living.
One can them ask what is promotion according to an impact in their promotion
decision to depend on elephant extra as their brand detergent if so to what
OF THE STUDY
The dictionary definition of
the term “impact” as will be in this study means “power to act” or have an
effect on the mind of / or get result form anything. The research us to
ascertain the impact of promotion on the marketing of detergent with peculiar
preference to elephant extra detergent by pz countries as a case study.
v To find out of pz industries considered
promotion as tool for their product.
v To finding out if promotion communicates the
massage of pz industries detergent product to the target market.
v To determine the degree and nature of the
effect of elephant extra detergent and product awareness and convinction on the
consumers buying habits
v To determine whether the marketing
communication media use by pz industries in the market of elephant extra
detergent is generating future benefits
v To suggestion of improving promotion tools
campaign for pz industries to enable them make effective promotion of its goods
The following are the research
question of the study
v How effective is promotion in the marketing of
elephant extra detergent product?
v Has promotion any effect in increasing the volume
of sales of elephant extra detergent.
v Is promotional design and layout of elephant
extra detergent influence consumers re – purchases
v Has adequate promotion lead to consumer
loyalty to elephant extra detergent product?
v Is product promotion an important
marketing strategy to pz industries?
Most of the factors that
combine to make this study necessary and relevant to presently economic
realities of Nigeria will be treated in this study generally. Marketing
promotion are variables used by company to create or induce sales awareness for
a given product or service. These are person selling, sales promotion,
advertising, public relation and publicity are sales markting on its own parts,
promotion teams up with product development, product pricing and physical
distribution to constitute the four parts that make up a company total market
strategy. Form the perspective, but advertising is seen as a subset of company
This however is not correct, the importance of promotion to transparency, it
position the strategy set up. The importance command towards is success or
failure of the companies product and hence its survival can best be seen from
the fact that as far back as 1986 or eighteen billion dollars wab been alone.
Even in Nigeria million of naira is industries spend a struggling #4.6million
detergent in 1990 alone. The mere fact that out to promotional agent or
companies protrude to marketing communication to be not been channeled into an
unproductive and non rewarding venture. In determining the effectiveness
probably some questions may be raised like, what are the characteristics how
can the effectiveness of promotion be an effective tools of
communication? This is in line with Ameachi view 1991 (p.5). when he
observe that effective promotion message to identified target audience at the
right time. The most effective cost toward the realization of the set marketing
objective and most forms has then marketing objective to increase sales
objective is further clarified in the word of Femi Adeniyi, Williams in Okigbo,
(1990) p.3. that the bottom line for an effective promotion should demand
action that will lead to a good sales. with this creation in the mind of most
promoters, if not all, the only paramount role and the only objective the
marketing promotion should objective the marketing promotion should
accomplish is to increase its market shame and subsequent sharing increase
sales. this accomplishment of sales objective may be either on short term or
long term basis before an promo tools above good and effective if must provide
some information objective to recall in future terms of the target market,
availability services, qualified price and direction of use etc.
He further added that effective promotion must fulfill certain criteria, and
this criteria he represented with the AIDCA principles as A = attention I
= interest, D = desire, c = creditability, A + ACTION>
informed that there is also the PAPA formula which is more popular in the
united states which visual and oral messages are address to selected public for
the purpose of informing and influencing them to buy product or services to act
or to be inclined to cut favourable toward ideal persons or items, trade market
on institution featured.
On the whole, one of the accepted definite of promotion seem to be the one
given by American market association 1948, when he says that promotion is any
paid form of non personal presentation of goods, service or ideas for an
identified sponsor. That means that promo tools are communication force that
can persuade and convice people to prefer a particular product to the other so
long as the product are affordable by the target consumers. All the forgong
determination about a specific goods or services or idea from a sponsor who has
paid for such communication and has choosen the appropriate medium be thinks
will deliver it effectively to his target audience. Base on this fact, it is
important to note that marketing communication has become veritable factors in
promoting a firms product offer whether or its target market.
Marketing promotion is perhaps the most conspicuous of all marketing activites
use by firm to fullfil their promotional task.
Thus, it is a general form of presentationof goods, service and ideas conducted
through media sales consultation, sales call, television, newspaper, bill
board, coupon offer discounts, hand bills, electronic media, postal agnts, cable
marketing, seminars etc.
Moreover, most promo tools are designed to indicates other tools through inter
– related or inter woven they function together by informing, persuading,
reminding and inducing, reassuring, reinforcing and establishing positive
attitude and image toward product and a company.
That means promotion enhance the potential response to the company activities.
The communication role in a marketing of an individual company depends on the
type of product, the nature of its market, the competitive marketing
environment of various detergent companies and various applications of
marketing variable b different firms.
Many firms have been into promotion for a very long time, although most of such
promotion is vocal .but today the dynamic nature and expansion of business has
modernized its means for instance, hawkwer crises, sold various product made
public announcement and chanted many promotional signs, symbols which were also
used in early communication to identify products and services.
Nevertheless, the basic reason for employing the techniques used in
communication today as used in the ancient days was to disseminate information
and ideas to a group of people and to influence or reinforce an existing
attitude in our knowledge of promotion in the ancient day was nature
fragimentary. The discouraging of archaeology has turned up evidence that the
romans a predecessors learnt the importance of maining communication. That mean
marketing communication was been whole of the firm relationship with the
society. There has been of course developmet of technique but the basic
principles have remained primarily costant perhaps one of the significant shift
emphasis over the countries have been the transaction, unorganized promotion
from the artiste to the commercial.
Marketing promotion or communication has gone beyond mans understanding, in the
sense that the period of the great change has added deeper and more
comprehensive understanding of promotion. Hence, influencing a lot of
buyers and selles behaviour with reference to the purchase of elephant extra
OF THE PROBLEM
The statement of the problem of
research work in the impact if promotion on the marketing of detergent product
in Enugu metropolis.
Promotional tools message that try to position the unique feature or qualities
of a product or service in the mind of a consumer / customer.
The fact remain that after a firm has produced the best product packaged
brilliantly, priced it attraction made it readily available in the market, it
must tell its successful stories to the target audience (Nnolim 1998 p86).
Moreover, there seems to be a serious competition in the detergent product
industries in the country for all the detergent industries in the country, for
all the detergent companies are seriously producing different type and band of detergent
such as Win, Ariel Blue Omo, Elephant extra detergent etc.
Based on this assumption, consumers seem to be confused as to which brand of
detergent product has the best quality. Hence promotion as a mean of
communication with its persuasive ability has a tremendous influence on people,
therefore pz industries is not an exception in the marketing of its elephant
extra detergent, the problem here is to find out whether the promotional tools
message being bombard on consumers with in Enugu metropolis by various
detergent product advertiseries have that P = promise, A = amplification, P =
proof, A = action PAPA.
Some say that communication effectiveness is evaluated in terms of both sales
even more difficult to determine. As such (1999 387) in support of this say,
htat communication effects, and sales result, response and attitudinal changes
Other issues of investigation are used to evaluate communication effectiveness.
They are determining whether the right audience is reached, which media most
effectively reached that audience, if the massage is registrated, and if the
message bad a favourable / unfavourable / neutral bearing on the customer
predispositions toward the vendor and his product.
If the form emphases communication objectives such as influencing customers
awareness levels, comprehensive or percept ions, the evaluation process often
require the collection of data before and after promotion has been implemented.
As a result of this Nwosu (1992:170) invincibly emphazied that, effective
communication research which is done through pretesting and post – testing the
Awareness, recall, attitude and behaviour intention are difficult concept to
measure reliability. With the time obviously many promoters measures the sales
Communication effectiveness as it affect branding could be seen below, branding
is the use of a name, term, symbol or design or a combination nfo these to
identify a product. It includes the use of brand names, trade marks and
particulary all other means of product identification. Brands name is a word
letter, or a goup of words or letters used to identify a product example –
tura, Nature essence etc.
Branding started during the middle age, where craft guides (similar to labour
union) and merchant guide formed to control the quality and quantity of
production each producer had to mark his good so that out put could reflect
unfavourable on other guild products and discourage future trade could be
traced back to the produce. Early trademarks were also a protection to the
buyer who could then know the source of the product.
Recently, brands have used mainly for identification as well as easy buying.
Good brands speeds up shopping for the customer and thus reduce the marketer
selling time and effort. And when custoers repeatedly purchases, by brand, the
marketer is protected against competition from other firms. This can increase
sales volume and reduce promoton cost.
With the proliferation of product, the role of branding has taken an added
significant for the consumers the brand offers instance recognition and
identification for a sought for product it also represent the promise of a
consistent reliable standard of quality taste, size, durability or even
emotional satisfaction. This adding volume to the product for both the consumer
Brand differentiation must be built the difference in image and association
elicited by product and brands in fact when consumers see a brand on the shelf,
their mental files should instantly register comprehensive of a particular
brand promise and inspire confidence in what to expect but this of course
depend on their level of familiarity with and acceptance of the brand. Russ
(1991 pg 160) highlighted that in as much as brand names are very helpful
marketing tools, they should not be common space or negative in connotation and
must infringe or misrepresent and that brands should be marketed according to
plan, converging, product research, distribution and promotional expenditure
(Robert east (1993:175)
OF THE STUDY
The study is limited to
investigate the impact of promotion on the marketing of elemphant extra
detergent product. That marketing of elephant extra detergent product. The
study will concentrate on employee in the company under study, consumer and
retailer within Enugu metropolis.
Moreover, the researcher limited the scope of study, which would however
stimulate further investigation in the field of marketing.
The following terminologies
used in this study are hereby defined for easy understanding and general
comprehension of the whole work.
Impact: this is an effect on the mind of consumer
Marketing promotion : this is one of the marketing mix variable used by marketers
in formulating marketing strategy
Marketing: is the all important set of creative human activities aimed at
identifying anticipating and satisfying human needs and want through exchange
as possible (Adirika 1990: 3)
Strategy: this refers to an integrate plan or policy through which a
business organization accomplishes it objectives
Consumer: on who buys or uses a product goods and service to satisfy a need
Detergent: this refers to substance that removes dirt.
Band loyalty: the attitude of a consumer to stick to a particular type of
product in the fact of alternation.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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