The Effectiveness Of Public Relations Practices In The Oil Sector A Case Study Of African Petroleumâ€™s Plc, Abstract
Petroleum Plc-enugu-a Marketer Of Petroleum Products And Chemicals Know That
Public Support And Good Will ...
petroleum Plc, Enugu, a marketer of petroleum products and chemicals know that
public support and good will as well as good corporate image are very important
for business success. Tends to be influenced by their publics which includes,
its staff, shareholders, customers and of course members of the press.
is actually very much interested to know its public problem areas and
opportunities with the aim to improving the organization’s overall performance
do not know what their public thinks about African petroleum public Relations
programmes and quality of services of the organization to its publics.
Be as it may, the researcher therefore decided to embark on the
objectives of the study are:
1. To determine the extent of AP’S public Relations
messages accessibility to their publics.
2. To determine whether AP’S public relations
practices influence the opinion of their publics.
3. To find out if the largest audience of the African
petroleum consider their public relations practices a adequate.
4. To ascertain whether the AP’S public relations
department is rated high in term of its efficiency.
5. To know whether the right public relations media
were being used.
This study is actually intend to cover African petroleum plc and
their public in Enugu State. When asked the coverage in short, all aspects of
the study as indicated in the study objectives were concerned.
Certain Survey was undertaken during which some members of the
four major publics of African petroleum were interviewed and ideas that got
from them really helped in pursuing certain areas of enquiring and to generate
the hypothesis. The approach was purely empirical.
Relevant data based on the scope of the study were collected
through desk research and field survey with structured questionnaire as the
main instrument administered to two hundred and fifty (250) respondents
comprising forty African petroleum staff, sixty share holders, one hundred and twenty
customers and thirty members of the press.
The questionnaire was highly structured and open – ended where
necessary. The questions and the response were very standard to facilitate
comparison of responses and to secure good control of the questions.
Further, the questionnaires were also designed to secure
information from the African petroleum’s public relations message and media,
their public relations department, and programmes are quality of their overall
services. Appropriate answers were checked and public relations practices and
quality of AP’s overall services rated.
The results are as follows:
1. The degrees of AP’s Relations accessibility to
their public is satisfactory as majority of the respondents reported having
easy access to African petroleum’s public Relations messages at regular bases.
2. The Public Relations practice of African
petroleum influences the opinion of their public. Reason being that most of the
respondents said that AP’s Public Relations messages are persuasive and
convincing thereby influence their opinion as regards the AP’s programmes and
3. The right Public Relations media were often used
as greater proportion of the respondents supported this claim and indicated
that AP uses media combination which are familiar to target audience to achieve
the desired effect.
4. The Public Relations Department of African
petroleum is rated high as regards its efficiency since majority of the
respondents reported this end stated that the department plan and execute
series of public relations programmes which enhances mutual understanding,
public acceptance and corporate good image and good will,
5. The publics do not consider African petroleum’s
public relations practices as adequate as majority of the respondent reported,
saying that the department should put more effort to implore some other issues
requiring public relations attentions and increase public relations Enlightment
programmes to reach the remote areas where the AP’s target audience resides.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the above Petroleum’s Public Relations
message media and quality of their overall services are satisfactory through
their mobilization programmes and enlightment campaign needs more efforts. We
should know that there is no public relations effort is perfect, meaning that
the PR’s effort need to be empowered upon and the time. To avoid certain
unforeseen circumstances, crisis and conflicts, there should be a constant
review of the organisations. Public reactions practices coming to know
its effectiveness and areas of improvement to correspond with the dynamic
Table of Contents
1.1 Background to the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Formulation of Hypothesis
1.5 Significant of the study
1.6 Limitation of the study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 What is public relations
2.2 Role of public relations executives in commercial
2.3 Strategy and scope of public relations programmes
2.4 Frame work of public relations programme
2.5 Importance of public relations in all oil
SCOPE, RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Scope of the study
3.2 Research methodology
3.3 Structuring the instrument/protesting
3.4 Determination of sample size
3.5 Sampling procedure
3.6 Method of Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Part A. a table of responses to sex
4.2 Indication of free access to AP’s public
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 Summary of findings
5.3 Other findings
This present dispensation, a lot of companies for production or
distribution of a particular type of production or service and its consequent
week to week competition among companies, it has become necessary for such
organization to established at least good will and mutual understanding with
their various publics if actually the tend to succeed.
success of such companies does not depend on product or service quality,
neither does it hing on advertising alone, nor on good salesmanship,
responsible allocation of fund, but the success of any company depend most
often on how well the company has created mutual understanding among her
(1988;9) he pointed out that negative situation could be converted into
positive achievement through awareness and understanding. Based on this,
Jefkins expects that company to use public relations to achieve sympathy where
there is hostility, acceptance where there is prejudice, develop interest where
there is apathy and communication to achieve knowledge where there is ignorance.
now need for a well-organized public relations practice. At this peripheral
cutlip, conter and Broom (1985:4) in their conceptual definition states that
“Public Relations is the management function that identifies, establishes and
maintains mutually beneficial relationship between a company and the various
public on whom its success or failure depends”.
achieve this mutually, beneficial relationship by creating awareness
maintaining regular communication network, evaluating public attitude
identifying their policies and programme with the public interest and executing
a programme of action to earn public understanding and support.
relation really involves contracting the relevant target publics and convincing
them of the benefits of a particular argument; to support specific issues and
causes; to accept companies proposals and public orientation. Public relations
complements marketing balance when introduced early in marketing plan can make
a telling difference in product success (Ajala: 1993:22).
the public relations practice took its origin or connected with the first and
second world wars in the United States of America (USA). Further, this public
relations practice also started in Nigeria around the 2nd world
war (Ajala: 1993:2).
Second World War there was the need for European government to set up an
information office where different message concerning the war situations and
other general economic situation could be disseminated. The information office later
known as public relations office was initially aimed at publicizing colonial
war with certain explanation why they should join the war; that was the view of
Adebolar (1992;19) it also assisted the government in its activities which
precisely, the modern public relations in Nigeria took off in earliest 1948
when the colonial government then set up a public relations department that had
offices in Lagos, Ibadan Kaduna, and Enugu. An expert in public relations job; Mr.
Harold cooper was the director of public relations in Nigeria, and of course he
successfully tried to modernize government information service and initiated
the policy of interpretation of government policies to the public (people). No
sooner did government recognized the importance of public in the discharge of
her legitimate functions than the private sectors solicited for a piece of this
action. In 1949, the United African Company (UAC) now known as United African
Company of Nigeria (UACN) came up with the first public relations outfit in
these sectors. That outfit crowed from an information department in the United
African Company network into a renamed public relations department in 1960. The
company then describes public relations as “a continuous effort on behalf of
the company to promote the best possible understanding of its policies,
activities and social attitude among those that can influence its development”.
British Petroleum came up with her own public relations in 1969. The public
relations activities of shell embrace all activities relating to relations
between the company, one hand, and the government of the federation, local
communities the press commercial organisations, educational institutions and
the other sector of the public on the hand”. Just like the United African
Company of Nigeria (UACN) shell’s aim for fostering these relations was to
ensure constant existence of unobstructed channel of communication with these
creating an atmosphere of understanding and cooperation. With the oil boom,
came professional expression of communications and public relations men and
women to fulfill the communications needs of industries, institutions,
organization and the religious groups. As we enter into the third decade,
people’s value started changing. As people’s needs charges, there was the need
for public relations as a management tools increased especially from June 1990
when federal military Government backed up the profession with an enabling
decree referred to as Nigerian institute of public relations decree No. 16 of
1990 (NIPR: 1954:35).
1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The history of African petroleum Plc date back
to 1954 when the then British petroleum BP company Limited, brought up the assets
of Atlantic refining company on the West African coast ten years later (1964)
that company was incorporated in Nigeria as British petroleum of Nigeria
Limited which of course is a subsidiary of the world wide British petroleum
Group that marketed petroleum product throughout the Federal Republic of
Nigeria. In 1978, the company changed from a private company to a public
company, when forty percent (40%) of the shares were sold to Nigerian citizens
in compliance with provisions of the Nigeria Enterprises promotions degree of
1977. On the 31st July 1979, the
Federal Government acquired the sixty percent (60%) share in British petroleum
(BP) Limited, just to making the company wholly Nigeria affair. As a result,
the name of the company had to change African (AP) Limited which was in
Accordingly, 20% of the Federal Governments 60% shares in African petroleum
were offered to the public in March 1989 in fulfillment of its privatization
policy. The share were seven times over subscribed during the exercise, thus
increasing the number of share holders from about fifty thousand to one hundred
and sixty thousand share holders. The company’s currently paid up share capital
of N 86.4M which of course is the largest in the country.
marketer of refined petroleum in Nigeria, African Petroleum (AP) procures and
distributes petroleum products like petrol (PMS), Diesel oil (AGO),
Household kerosene or Domestic petroleum kerosene (HHK/DPK), Low poor fuel oil
(LPFO), Liquefied petroleum Gas (LPG), fuel oil, Jet-A-1 (Aviation furbric
kerosene) etc the company also manufacture and market a wide range of
lubricants, insecticide and chemicals. This company’s operation marketing areas
are Kaduna, Kano, Port – Harcourt, Warri.
petroleum plc has its head office in Lagos. The main source of its products is
the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) through its strategic
network depots and refineries. As contained in its Diary (1998) African
petroleum is a world class integrated petroleum company where outstanding and
dedicated people supported by superior technology deliver exceptional benefits
to its shareholders”. Their mission is to be an unmovative and customer
oriented, provider of quality petroleum and related products and services”.
ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OF AFRICAN PETROLEUM PLC
petroleum, just like every other big organization shows various departments
that made up this African petroleum plc. Functions of each department are
clearly defined though has some element of inter- relationship as well as inter
dependent, meaning that no one department functions very well in isolation to
the other departments.
hierarchical structure, we have at the top Managing Director who is the Chief
Executive. We have two Executive Directors for marketing and services. The
Managing Director or the Chief executive co-ordinates these two main divisions,
formulates key policies within the scope of the general policies as was laid
down by Board of Director of the company.
Executive is directly in control of general management such chief internal
Auditor (CIA) manager, management information (MMI) and the company secretary.
These three departments are under the service division, personnel
and administration, real estate and Engineering. It should be noted that each
of these department is headed by a manager who is answerable to the Executive
Division is responsible for the sales and marketing of the companies product.
We have three department headed by department manager. Such departments are
commercial sales, chemical marketing and retails sales. The Public Relations
unit of the company is under this division. The Public Relations manager
reports to the executive Director (marketing). The other departments like
lubricant, supply and Distribution, finance and Accounts all reports directly
to the three Directors.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS:
petroleum plc (formerly British petroleum) that has been in existence since
1954 is now one of the major marketers of petroleum products in Nigeria.
African petroleum plc operates few major marketing areas in Kaduna, Kano, Lagos
and Port Harcourt. It has depots at (Apapa) Lagos, Jos and Kano but its main
source of Petroleum Company (NNPC). Presently the company entered into the
marketing of chemical, real estate development and manufacturing of
the ever-increasing number of competition and continued fuel scarcity in the
country, the company does not fold its arms watching rather she continues to
diversify and expand on its activities. The reason being that should the
company fail to satisfy her numerous publics by constant supply of product as
at when needed and of course quality product, the publics negative reaction
would affect its profit making ability and in respect affect the nations
economy. In the effort of improving the quality of its produce and services, as
regards achieving public commendations, goodwill and support, cannot in the
actual sense understand how actually the publics feel about their company’s
quality of services and their public relations programmes.
research work shall do justice to address certain problems like
a. How far is the public relations messages of AP
plc accessible to her publics.
b. Were the right public relations media often use?
c. Is the public relations department of AP rated
high by her publics in terms of its efficiency?
d. Does the public relations practices of African
petroleum plc influence the opinion of their public in favour of AP.
e. Do the public relations consider African
petroleum plc’s public relations practice as adequate?
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of
public relations practices of African Petroleum Plc.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of the study are as follows:
a. To ascertain the extent of African petroleum’s
public messages accessibility to their public.
know whether the right public relations media were often used.
c. To determine whether AP’s public relations
practice influence the opinion of their publics in favour of African petroleum.
ascertain whether African petroleum’s public relations department is rated high
in terms of its efficiency.
e. To find out if the publics of AP plc consider
their public relations practices as adequate.
FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
H01: The degree of African petroleum’s public relations messages
accessibility to her public is unsatisfactory.
H02: The right public relations media were not often used.
H03: The public relation practice of African petroleum
does not influence the opinion of their public in favour of African petroleum.
H04: The public relations department of AP is not
rated high in terms of its efficiency.
H05: The public considers African petroleum’s public
relations practice as adequate.
1.7 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
the diversification and expansion of its activities, the current crisis and the
ever-increasing competition among oil marketing companies. African petroleum
plc are concerned with generating marketing information which all will help
them to achieve a favourable market share and maintain its profit marketing
ability if really wants to remain in business.
may after some recommendation that will help to ensure an adequate and
effective use of public relations as a tool for business promotions.
this work will also serve as a working tool for Chief Executives and managers
in the oil marketing sectors; this piece of work will actually form a basis for
further development and as well contribute to the existing knowledge in the
area of oil marketing.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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