The Effectiveness Of Public Relations Practice In The Oil Sector (a Case Study Of African Petroleum Plc Port-harcourt)., Abstract
Petroleum Plc-a Marketer Of Petroleum Products And Chemicals-knows That
Public Support And Goodwill As Well ...
petroleum Plc, a Marketer of petroleum products and chemicals, knows that
public support and goodwill as well as good corporate image are very important
for business success. Tends to be influenced by their publics which includes,
its staff, shareholders, customers and of course members of the press.
is actually very much interested to know its public problem areas and
opportunities with the aim to improving the organization’s overall performance
to enable them know what their public thinks about African petroleum public
Relations programmes and quality of services of the organization to its publics.
The researcher therefore decided to embark on this study with the
objectives of the study are:
To determine the extent of AP’S public Relations messages
accessibility to their publics and also find out whether AP’s public relations
practices influence the opinion of their publics.
Relevant data based on the scope of the study were collected
through primary and secondary data with structured questionnaire as the main
instrument administered to two hundred and fifty (250) respondents comprising
forty African petroleum staff, sixty share holders, one hundred and twenty
customers and thirty members of the press.
The questionnaire was highly structured and open – ended where
necessary. The questions and the response were very standard to facilitate
comparison of responses and to secure good control of the questions, chi-square
(x2) was used to analyse the hypotheses
Among the findings were that the African Petroleum Public
Relations Media Message and quality of their overall services are satisfactory
through their mobilization programmes and enlightment campaign but needs more
efforts. AP’s Public Relation’s Practice influences their publics to favour her
products through persuasive and convincing communication. The following
recommendation were made; AP should always engage in a constant evaluation of
their public relations practice and its effectiveness to identify any short
comings. Media combination should be reviewed to always embrace appreciable
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background to the
1.2 Statement of
1.3 Objective of the
1.4 Formulation of
1.5 Scope of the
1.6 Significance of the
1.7 Definition of
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 What is public
2.2 Role of public relations executives in
2.3 Strategy and scope of public relations
2.4 Frame work of public relations programme
2.5 Importance of public relations in all oil
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Sources of
3.1.1 Primary data
3.2 Area of
3.4.1 Questionnaire design/ interview questions
3.4.3 Multiple choice
3.5 Sampling method
3.5.1 Sample size and sampling
3.7 Validity of the
3.8 Method of
3.9 Validation of
3.10 Method of data
FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION
4.1 Part A. a table of responses to
4.2 Indication of free access to AP’s
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.2 Summary of
5.5 Limitations of the
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
of African petroleum Plc date back to 1954 when the then British petroleum BP
company Limited, brought up the assets of Atlantic refining company on the West
African coast Ten years later (1964) that company was incorporated in Nigeria
as British Petroleum of Nigeria Limited which of course is a subsidiary of the
world wide British petroleum Group that marketed petroleum product throughout
the Federal Republic of Nigeria. In 1978, the company changed from a private
company to a public company, when forty percent (40%) of the shares were sold
to Nigerian citizens in compliance with provisions of the Nigeria Enterprises
promotions degree of 1977. On the 31st July
1979, the Federal Government acquired the sixty percent (60%) share in British
petroleum (BP) Limited, just to make the company wholly Nigeria affair. As a
result, the name of the company had to change to African Petroleum (AP) Limited
which was in November 1979.
Accordingly, 20% of the Federal Governments 60% shares in African petroleum
were offered to the public in March 1989 in fulfillment of its privatization
policy. The share were seven times over subscribed during the exercise, thus
increasing the number of share holders from about fifty thousand to one hundred
and sixty thousand share holders. The company’s current paid up share capital
of N 86.4M which of course is the largest in the country.
marketer of refined petroleum in Nigeria, African Petroleum (AP) procures and
distributes petroleum products like petrol (PMS), Diesel oil (AGO),
Household kerosene or Domestic petroleum kerosene (HHK/DPK), Low poor fuel oil
(LPFO), Liquefied petroleum Gas (LPG), fuel oil, Jet-A-1 (Aviation furbric
kerosene) etc the company also manufacture and market a wide range of
lubricants, insecticide and chemicals. This company’s marketing operation areas
are Kaduna, Kano, Port – Harcourt, Warri.
petroleum plc has its head office in Lagos. The main source of its products is
the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) through its strategic
network depots and refineries. As contained in its Diary (1998) African
petroleum is a world class integrated petroleum company where outstanding and
dedicated people supported by superior technology deliver exceptional benefits
to its shareholders”. Their mission is to be an innovative and customer
oriented, provider of quality petroleum and related products and services”.
are open systems, and most of what they do generates direct benefits and costs
for their societies. Today society demands that businesses join in the urgent
task of solving societies, problems. Corporations are more than economic
institutions and have a responsibility to devote some of their resources
problems mainly of which corporations helped to create.
small or large our enterprise, we cannot isolate our business from the society
around us. Nor can we function without its goodwill. The researcher therefore
tried to x-ray the public relations practice in African petroleum plc to assess
its effectiveness in building desired goodwill imperative to healthy business
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS:
petroleum plc (formerly British petroleum) that has been in existence since
1954 is now one of the major marketers of petroleum products in Nigeria.
African petroleum plc operates few major marketing areas in Kaduna, Kano, Lagos
and Port Harcourt. It has depots at (Apapa) Lagos, Jos and Kano but its main
source of Petroleum Company (NNPC). Presently the company entered into the
marketing of chemical, real estate development and manufacturing of
the ever-increasing number of competition and continued fuel scarcity in the
country, the company does not fold its arms watching rather she continues to
diversify and expand on its activities. The reason being that should the
company fail to satisfy her numerous publics by constant supply of product as
at when needed and of course quality product, the publics negative reaction
would affect its profit making ability and in respect affect the nations
economy. In the effort of improving the quality of its product and services, as
regards achieving public commendations, goodwill and support, cannot in the
actual sense understand how actually the publics feel about their company’s
quality of services and their public relations programmes.
research work shall do justice to address certain problems like
a. How far is the public relations messages of AP
plc accessible to her publics.
b. Were the right public relations media often use?
c. Is the public relations department of AP rated
high by her publics in terms of its efficiency?
d. Does the public relations practices of African
petroleum plc influence the opinion of their public in favour of AP.
e. Do the public relations consider African
petroleum plc’s public relations practice as adequate?
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of the study are as follows:
a. To ascertain the extent of African petroleum’s
public messages accessibility to their public.
b. To know whether the right public relations media
were often used.
c. To determine whether AP’s public relations
practice influence the opinion of their publics in favour of African petroleum.
d. To ascertain whether African petroleum’s public
relations department is rated high in terms of its efficiency.
e. To find out if the publics of AP plc consider
their public relations practices as adequate.
FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
H01: The degree of African petroleum’s public relations
messages accessibility to her public is unsatisfactory.
H02: The right public relations media were not often used.
H03: The public relation practice of African petroleum
does not influence the opinion of their public in favour of African petroleum.
H04: The public relations department of AP is not
rated high in terms of its efficiency.
H05: The public considers African petroleum’s public
relations practice as adequate.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of study is focused on public relations practices in
African Petroleum Plc. and their internal and external publics in Port Harcourt
metropolis were studies as for the topics covered, all the items as contained
in the objectives of the study and hypothesis were treated.
The view of the office holders and opinion leaders were bought
since they constitute decision makers.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
the diversification and expansion of its activities, the current crisis and the
ever-increasing competition among oil marketing companies. African petroleum
plc are concerned with generating marketing information which all will help
them to achieve a favourable market share and maintain its profit marketing
ability if really wants to remain in business.
researcher may after some recommendation that will help to ensure an adequate
and effective use of public relations as a tool for business promotions.
this work will also serve as a working tool for Chief Executives and managers
in the oil marketing sectors; this piece of work will actually form a basis for
further development and as well contribute to the existing knowledge in the
area of oil marketing.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
PUBLIC RELATIONS: Public relations is the
art and service of achieving harmony with the environment through mutual
understanding based on truth, knowledgeable and full information. (Sam Black
1990) in (Ajala 200/p.3)
means the process through which needs, emotions, desires, ideas, sentiments and
goals are expressed among human beings using codes, symbols and languages
understand by the parties involved in the process.
COMPANY: This can be defined as a business or an organization
created to pursue profit by providing goods and services.
DIVERSIFICATION: This is
the financial strategy of holding different investment to reduce the risk of
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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