research work titled “The Effect of Advertising on Consumer Preference Patterns
for Malt Drinks (A Comparative Study of Amstel Malta and Guinness Malta) in
Enugu Metropolis, was carried out with objectives.
· To determine how advertising has affected the
decision to buy, Guinness Malta or Amstel Malta.
· To determine the brand of malt that is more
available than the other and the consumer demand for it.
· To suggest ways the companies should follow to
make better progress in boldling their brands and for them to satisfy their
customers effectively and to maximize profit.
To achieve the above objectives, related literature were reviewed
on consumer preference patterns for malt drinks. In addition primary and
secondary data were collected to solve the research problem, and questionnaires
were used as research instruments.
The population of study comprised the consumer’s distributors and
the management and relevant staff of both Guinness and Amstel Malta Companies
in Enugu Metropolis.
The researcher used census survey on management and relevant staff
because the population under study was small, while Topman’s formula was used
to determine the sample size for consumers and the distributors.
In organizing and presenting the data collected, tables,
frequencies and percentage were used, while hypothesis were tested with Z score.
Based on the analysed data, the following findings were made.
consumers in Enugu indicate that the price of Amstel is higher than that of
Ø They also
observed that advertising helps to create awareness of both products.
are more satisfied with the advertising that leads to purchase of Amstel than
Based on the findings, recommendations were made.
- Both companies should
engage in advertising strategy that are effective and other
promotional activities that appeal to consumers for efficient and effective
- The two companies should maintain continuous
availability of their products.
- Nigeria breweries Plc should reduce the price of
their product order to attract more customers.
- Guinness should look into the advertising that
leads to more purchase of their product.
- If the above suggestions and recommendations are
effectively and efficiently implemented, both companies will experience a
profound change in their advertising performance and consumers will be better
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problems
1.3 Research Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Definition of Terms.
CHAPTER TWO: RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Advertising an Overview
2.2 Forms of Advertising
2.3 Role of Advertising in the Marketing of Consumer
2.4 The Effect of Advertising on Product Brands
2.5 Impact of Advertising in Consumer Decision
2.6 An Overview of Consumer Preference patterns
2.7 Impact of Advertising on the Preference for Malt
2.8 Impact of Advertising on the Preference for
Amstel to Guinness Malta.
THREE: RESEARCH METHODIOLOGY
3.1 Sources of Data
3.2 Population of Study
3.3 Sample Size Determination.
3.4 Distribution of Questionnaires
3.5 Research Instruments.
3.6 Method of Data organization.
3.7 Limitation of Study
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION OF DATA.
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.2 Test of Hypotheses.
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF
FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of Findings
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
It is a common belief that advertising is as old as human history,
yet as a promotional tool, it started with the development of
commerce. “In the early days, advertising was practiced in
different forms at different parts of the world”, according to Samson (1981 :
180). He maintained that “there were small stone printing stamps
which were used by the “Quacks of Roman times’ to impress on surface of their
solves. During these period, there are different Era of advertising
which include “pre-marketing Era, this started as a product exchange in
prehistoric times to the middle of eighteenth century, buyers and sellers
communicated in very primitive ways for most of this period, “Media” such as
clay tables, town criers, and favarn signs were the best way to advertise a
product or a service towards the end of this era was printing used.
In other words, people have for centuries communicated their ideas and their
needs to one another through advertising, as one can see, advertising takes
many forms and has considerable influence on contemporary society and
commerce. (Connor and Hart 1999 : 5).
During the last 50 years, (Research Era) advertisers have
methodically improved the techniques of identifying and reaching narrowly
targeted audience with messages prepared specifically for each groups or
individual, modern communication technology has aided in this quest for the
perfect advertising campaign.
Awake 22nd August
(1998 :5). Many years ago people uses primitive hand tools to produce
goods, they live in small Isolated communities were artisans and farmers
battered goods and services among themselves, distribution was limited, due to
development, Greek and Roman Merchants expanded contact with other society and
with the development of more sophisticated tools, people achieved a higher
level of production.
But ancient civilizations had only unsophisticated hand tools for
producing goods, so quantity and variety of available goods was negligible.
There was an increase demand for goods created a greater need to
advertise the availability of these goods. (Marshal 1995 : 81) thus
signs carried in clay, wood, or stone were hung in front of shops so passersby
could see what the merchants has to offer, because most people at this time
could not read, as a result of this, signs are used to symbolic the good for
“The symbolic and pictorial nature of advertising which gave vent
to out door advert has proved to be one of the enduring form of aid” (Connor
and Hart: 1999 :10).
The introduction of printing marked a dramatic tuning point
in1450’s which was the major event in the history of civilization and probably
the most important development in the history of advertising Jonones Gutenberg)
the investor of printing press and it’s system changed the way people lived and
In 1740, the first printed outdoor poster known as “Loarding”
appeared in London which become the forerunner of modern out door advertising.
In Nigeria, advertising can be traced to one of the earliest mass
communication which is known as “Town crying”, according to Nwabueze (1980
:28), modern advertising in Nigeria commenced with the establishment of the
first news paper called IWE IOHIN which carries information.
Advertising is a powerful marketing communication tools used by
companies to fulfil the promotional task, it is impersonal form of
communication or presentation on goods, ideas, or services conducted through
paid media under open or identified sponsorship. It is a marketing
tool that helps to sell goods, services, images, and ideas through information
Its objectives could be to create awareness, achieve conviction,
build preference, influence choice of purchase and encourage action.
Advertising have a purposeful influence on the choice of purchase
towards a product brand of a consumer when an advert is placed showing the
benefits and advantages the brand has over another, it will be a motivating
factor to entice the buyer, making the advert to suit once personality there he
starts to initiate conviction, the next thing he takes action (purchase)
therefore advertisement has much influence on the choice of purchase.
Advertising is an agent of choice; one of the most important
benefits is that it facilitates the consumers becoming active rather than
passive agents in the economic cycle. For a consumer to make a
purchase, he needs to be informed, he receives information from variety of
sources and make his decision one.
In Nigeria, there are many manufacturers on different malt drink
they include Nigeria breweries Plc. This is the pioneer and largest
brewing company in Nigeria, it was incorporated in 1946 and recorded a landmark
when the first bottle of STAR Lager bear rolled off the bottling lines in it’s
Lagos brewery in June 1949. This was followed by Aba brewery in
which was commissioned in 1957, Kaduna brewery in 1963 and Ibadan brewery in
1982. In September 1993, the company acquired the fifth brewery in
Enugu, on Apul, 2001, it recently christened the Ama Greenfield brewery in Enugu;
the Largest in Africa, the brewery was commissioned in October
2003. Thus from its humble beginning in 1946, the company now has
file operational breweries from which its high quality products are distributed
to all parts of this great country. They have rich portfolio of
high brands star lager beer (1949) Gulder lager beer, (1970) maltina (1973)
with four varieties now, legend extra stout (1992) Amstel malta (1994)a nd the
sehweppes range of carbonated soft drinks lunched in December 1996.
It was followed by the launch of crush in November 1997 and Schweppes pineapple
in October 1999, and they have earlier launched Heinelten in 1998
June. In August 2001 they decided to exit the carbonated soft
drinks market because of the need to concentrate on its areas of core
competence, the Schweppes franchise was sold off.
While Guinness Nigeria Plc was incorporated in 1967 at Lagos but
this is a company from Britain which started its production since 1750,
Guinness brewery was the first Guinness brewery outside the United Kingdom and
only the third in the world. They have recorded a well tremendous
growth in production over the years. Today it has three breweries
in the country via one in Benin, Aba and Lagos and apart from its flagship
stout product, they also produces a popular lager brand called Harp beer, Malta
Guinness, and gordons spark which they started in 2001 and is one of the best
alcoholic drink in Nigerian market today. Guinness Nigeria Plc is
also well known and have one of the largest capitalized companies in the
Nigerian stock exchange, in other words they often boast their significant
contribution to the economy through taxes paid into government coffers.
Guinness Nigeria Plc were the manufacturers of Sazzembram which
the target market appreciated but was faced off when other alcoholic company
stated to adulterate it, Guinness Malt is one of their alcoholic drink which is
selling very well in the country due to its content, it is been produced in
their 3 zones in Nigeria but it is the only product manufactured in their Aba
Furthermore, these manufacturers of malt drinks try to improve
their sales volume by making the product fit the consumers need than the
competitive products. The links between manufacturers and consumers of malt
drinks was made possible through advertising and has important economic effect
on the consumers.
Advertising jingles are intended to have effect on the consumers
or the recipients and the wide spread on different malt drinks coupled with the
growth of firms that manufacture different brand of malt drinks, occurred
simultaneously with the rapid expansion of malt drink market (Connor and Hart
Consumers who could not afford to taste beer turned to
non-alcoholic drinks like malt with the aim that course from advertising
messages. It becomes imperative for, there are many brands of
malt drinks, left for the marketing managers to determine those factors which
necessitate the consumer preference of one brand of malt in the face of many
competing brands, which include Vitamalt, Maltina, Maltex, Hi-malt, Guinness
Malt and Amstel Malta.
However our main aim here is to determine how much influence does
advertising exert on the consumers of Amstel Malt and Guinness Malt also how it
affects the choice of the consumers.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE
has been difficult to pin point exactly the factors that have motivated a
particular consumer to prefer a particular brand of product to
another. Oftenly marketers have fallaciously been myopic, they
exert their attention only on those factors which are salient as the
determinant of consumer preference for their brand while there are other major
factors that play vibrant roles that are completely ignored, and consequently
the effect is the failure of the products to make much impact in the marketing
Advertising for many years has been working for the manufacturers
of malt drinks, which showcases their product offers to the market and
determines their consumers with some promises, incentives benefits that will be
derived by patronizing their product brands. Advertising to
manufacturers of malt drink is like a river that will never dry, it has many
versions of it, that could be used to project the image, production offer,
showing benefits and advantages of a particular brand to another.
Since the inception of malt drink, there has been a rapid expansion in the malt
drink market through the help of advertising. A reliable source
indicated that a significant proportion of Nigeria population had been consumers
of alcoholic drinks have turned non-alcoholic also existed strong competition
between the consumers of Amstel malt and Guinness malt, because of these
competitions, the need arise to check on the consumers satisfaction and benefit
with the brand they consume.
firm cannot depend on the consumers to voluntarily bring complains to the
dissatisfaction they got by consuming a particular brand of malt, rather they
strive to check other major or minor factors that may influence the consumer
choice of one malt to another.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYU
The researcher has the following objectives in carrying out thus
· To determine how advertising has affected the
decision, selection and choice made by consumers between Guinness malt and
· To determine if convenience and availability
influence the consumer choice of either Guinness malt or Amstel malt.
· To know if advertising affects the consumer
preference and choice of either Guinness malt or Amstel malt.
· In other to know if selling price for each
determine it’s preference.
· To determine if taste alone affects the consumer
choice of either of the two.
· To find out if taste variable also affects the
choice made by the consumers of both products.
· To identify what special feature are contained
in the advertising messages carried out for either Guinness malt or Amstel malt
and how they affect consumers.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
view of the problem that prompted the research on this topic also in line with
the objective mentioned above, the following hypotheses were formulated.
Ho: Price does not influence the consumer decision
to buy more of Guinness than Amstel Malta.
Hi: Price influences the consumer decision
to buy more of Guinness than Amstel Malta.
Ho: The taste of malt do not helps the consumer
to prefer either Amstel Malta or Guinness.
The taste of malt drinks helps the consumer to prefer Guinness or Amstel Malta.
Ho: Advertising does not help the consumer to be
better aware of Amstel Malta than Guinness Malta.
Advertising of Malt helps the consumers to be better aware of Amstel Malta than
Ho: The advertising strategies used by companies
do not lead to consumer repeat purchase of Guinness Malta or Amstel Malta.
The advertising strategies that is used by companies lead to consumer repeat
purchase of Amstel Malta to Guinness Malta.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
study is expected to furnish additional information to help manufacturers of
Amstel malt and that of Guinness malt in achieving high sales volume add
adjusting production properly to sales within the context of marketing
concept. The core issue of marketing concept lies basically on,
understanding the consumers and making every thing possible to satisfy the
consumer efficiently and effectively.
this study will help to show how advertising can stimulate demand for either of
the two products in the market, as well as helping the marketing manager to
assign a particular advertising message to a particular brand of
malt. Thus this study is supposedly expected to help firms and
other producers of malt drinks to understand the relative influence exerted by
other marketing attributes:- via price, distribution, promotion, in
other words the 4p’s on the consumer preference of one brand to another.
Furthermore this study would help both firms (Nigeria breweries Plc and
Guinness Nigeria Plc) the marketers of Amstel malta and Guinness malt to
identify the proper marketing strategies that will be suitable in carrying out
their marketing activities or programmes to be adopted and made a culture by
the producers such as product modification, pricing strategy, incentives
promotional campaign and incentive distribution strategy.
It will go
a long way tohelp the firm determine it’s lope holes and try to improve on them
also know the best advertising campaign that needed to be adopted.
Finally, the study will serve as a stepping stone for more research on the
effectiveness of advertising especially in the product preference of the
consumer, it will also stimulate the interest of Nigerian firms on consumer
research and enable them to understand the importance and role of advertising
on the performance of a product in the market.
1.6 RESEARCHER SCOPE OF
Nigeria and the world at large, different malt drinks brands are consumed by
various kinds of consumers but this study concentrated on the consumers located
in Enugu metropolis and the study is on advertising.
It is the
conviction of the researcher that the consumers of Guinness malt and Amstel
malt leaving in Enugu metropolis will make a very good representation of the
metropolis are group into five zones
A – Uwani,
Zone B –
Coal Camp, Ogbete main Market
– G.R.A/Trans Ekulu/New haven,
Source: (Enugu North town and
regional planning department). This study is expected to cover
these zones because of time and cost constraints.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
A. Advertising: Non-personal
presentation and promotion of this goods and services by an identified sponsor
and must be paid for through a medium. Promotional tool sales
promotion, personal selling, public relation etc. source: Ebue, Adirika
B. C. & principle and Practice of Marketing).
Process by which people exchange information, views, ideas, through or
feelings. Source: (Oxford
C. Contemporary Society:
Group of people living in an area of a time with a common law shared together
(Oxford Dictionary) source.
the marketing perspective on how marketing activities/programmes should be
performed best. Source (Adirika & Ebue Text Principles & Practice
E. Preference: Is showing why
you like a product brand to another product brand. Source (Oxford
Dictionary/Understanding from Principle/Practice of Marketing and Kotlers Text
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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