Communication is perhaps the most important human survival skill because we all
need it to maintain contact with the world. This research study focused
on the nature, process, channels, and barriers in communications and their
effect on the effective marketing of Hi Malt. The researcher made on
indepth study of the various marketing communication tools. The study also
considered the various media through which sales messages get to potential and
prospective consumers, and the impact of there messages against the background
of competitive product brands.
To accomplish the purpose of this research, related literature on the subject
were viewed. The researcher made use of both primary and secondary data.
The analysis of our data revealed that consumers and aware of the presence of
Hi Malt in the market. Semantic barriers, choice of media and appeal to
the wrong target market reduce the impact of marketing communication
activities. It was also reverted that Hi malt as an indigenous malt
drinks in Nigeria does not enjoy an impressive marketing share of the malt
drink market. Furthermore, the findings revealed that the image of
consolidated breweries plc is a major influencing factor in the sale of
In the light of the researcher findings, appropriate recommendation were made
to enhance the impact of marketing communication on the marketing of Hi-malt
message in terms of semantics and the adoption of the universal Malt battle
type packaging the researcher advocated into use because in many cares the
image of the product and the organization are interwoven, and the both plays
symbolic role. However, marketing communication as used in this study is
as relates to communication between the marketing organization and their
various external publish. Essentially, a marketing organization needs
some elements of marketing communication to inform and educate members of its
target audience about the existence of its goods & series and to persuade
them to patronize it of to develop favourable attitude and opinions towards
it. Over the years in Nigeria, companies have been known to continually
desistretegies to survive in their various markets. This has become more
imperative because of me easing competition between companies whose aim is to
gain better market share and stars in business. Te situation is not
helped by the economic recession of the recent past years. As long as the
economic wheel of the nation turns, new products are introduced into the market
in various shapes and sizes to compete for a place with the already existing
products, some of the products enjoy a sizeable shares of the market, other do
not. The question then arises as to how to stimulate demand for their
product. While these may be other tractors that influences demand for a
product and hence its level of consumption, marketing communication plays a
vital role in stimulating demand. In many cases, there have been barriers
where they exists and reverse them to make for more effective marketing.
Consolidated Breweries plc, the organization responsible for the manufacturing,
developments distribution, sales and marketing of Hi-malt (the drink brand of
our study0 was incorporated in 1991. This company was born through the
merging of two breweries namely Eastern Breweries and continental Breweries.
The head quarter of this company was at Lagos and it also has a branch plant at
Awo-Omma in owner Imo state of Nigeria . they have their depot to various
states in Nigeria which Enugu is one of them. It is from there breweries
that two brands of product are produced namely Hi-malt and “33” export lager
beer are manufactured and distributed to every hook and Granny of the
country. The collective success of the two brands in eh product portfolio
has been responsible for the company’s strength an towering statue.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Statement of problem
Objectives of study
Statement of hypothesis
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Definition of terms.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Nature of communication
Process of communication
Channel / methods of communication
Barriers to communication
Marketing communication tools
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Sources of data
Population of the study
Sample size determination
Method of questionnaire administration
Validation of research instrument
Method of data analysis
Limitation of the study
Data presentation and analysis
Tests of hypothesis
Summary of findings, presentation and
Summary of findings
Suggestion for further study
OF THE STUDY
Communication is fundamental to the existence of every individual,
group or organization. It is so vital that without it no individual,
group, product or organization can succeed. To my mind communication
exists as a major indispensable human need because people need to communicate
with others in order to share information, ideas, experience and feelings.
Communication can be viewed from different perspective and like many
etymologies, has the ramification and connotations. It could be viewed
from the standpoint of person to person relationship. It could be seen
from the background of communication chains in an organization or a business
setting. And it could indeed be viewed from the perspective of the
relationship between the organization and their external publics.
In the development of this study, all the above perspectives of communication
may come into use because in many cases the image of the product and the
organization are interwoven and they both play a symbolic role. However,
marketing communication between the marketing organization and their various
external publics. Essentially, a marketing organization needs some
elements of marketing communication to importance educate members of its target
audience about the existence of its goods and services and to persuade them to
patronize it or to develop favourable altitudes and opinions towards it.
Over the years in Nigeria, companies have been known to continually design
strategies to survive in their various markets. This has become more
imperative because of increasing competition between companies whose aim is to
gain a better market share and stay in business. The situation is not
helped by the economic recession of the recent past years. As long as the
economic wheel of the nation turns, new products are introduced into the market
in various shapes and sizes to compete for a plea with the already existing
products. Some of the products enjoy a sizeable share of the market,
others do not.
While there may be other factors that influence demand for a product and hence
its level of consumption. Marketing communication plays a vital role in
stimulating demand. In many cases there have been inadequate
communication and in others there have become barriers to marketing
communication. There is therefore the need to ascertain inadequacies and
barriers where they exist and reverse them to make for more effective marketing.
Consolidated breweries plc, the organization responsible for the manufacturing,
development, distribution, sales and marketing of Hi Malt. (the malt drink
brand of our study) was incorporated in 1991 as consolidated breweries
plc. The birth of this company was the merge ring of continental
breweries and eastern breweries in 1991. this two companies were merged
because they produce the same type of product which is “33”. These companies
came together in 1989 to agreed on each other to be one. They merge in
1991 and brewery both “33” and Hi malt. Eastern brewery produces ‘33” but
when they merge, they called their company consolidated brewery plc instead of
answering any of their former company name.
The company brewery two rarities of products namely “33” and Hi malt.
These companies have their headquarter at Lagos and they brewery only “33” at
Lagos. They have another branch at Awo-Omamma in Imo State. They
brewery both “33” and Hi malt at Awo-Omamma. They have many depot all
over the country which include Enugu, Abakaliki, Por-Harcourt, Markurdi, Aba
etc – they develop this depot to make sure that their product are been
circulated / reach to their target market. It is from this brewery that
“33” and Hi malt are manufactured and distributed to every nook and cranny of
the country. The collective success of these two brands in the company’s
product portfolio has been responsible for the company’s strength and towering
stature. Together, these products have facilitated the strong leadership
position of consolidated brewery Plc in the total brewed products market in
1.2 STATEMENT OF
the years the malt drink market has witnessed the introduction of a variety of
malt drink products from various breweries. Many breweries had to
diversify their product range to met their overheads make profit and stay in
business in a period of recession.
The first malt drink that made in instant market success in Nigeria was
Maltex. This product was an imported brand from Europe. Maltex was
in fact a household name as it dominated the market in the early and mid
1970’s. Nigerian try to introduce maltina in 1976; then in 1991
consolidated breweries introduced their our Hi malt with the same bottle with
maltex. And other malt drink were introduced before and after Hi malt
include some are named maltina vita malt, Guinness malt all package in maltex
type bottle flooded the market. Except Guinness malt which its bottle is
a unique one.
The choice of topics for this thesis is dictated by the scenario pointed
above. The major problem of this study therefore is to determine the
extent marketing communication can play a role in the marketing communication
in the effective of marketing of Hi malt drink.
In this regard, and given the above background, I intend to take on the
a. to determine areas of inadequacy in
communication and to ascertain whether enhanced communication will teed to
effective marketing of the product.
b. To determine the reach and impact of advertising
and buyers and potential consumers.
c. To investigate whether buyers and potential
consumers of the product understand and share the ideas and information
directed to them.
d. To investigate the feedback mechanism as a way
of ascertaining that management follows up marketing communication with
adequate assessment of level of understanding and acceptability of the message
by the public with a new to increasing sales.
OF THE STUDY
main objectives of the study are:
a. To find out marketing communication modes
techniques and systems in use of the marketing of Hi malt.
b. To assess the effectiveness of such modes,
techniques and systems in the marketing of the product.
c. To explain whether barriers and inadequacies in
communication and other related factors or impede effective marketing of the
d. To suggest ways of addressing identified
problems based on the findings and recommendation better strategies for the effective
marketing of Hi malt.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following forms are my research question in this study.
a. Does inadequate communication hamper consumption
of Hi malt drink?
b. To it advertising that influences purchase of Hi
malt or is it manufactures good will?
c. Do barriers to communication affect volume of
sales of Hi malt drink.
d. Does two way communication have the
potential to increase the volume of sales of Hi malt?
e. Will a change in the packaging of Hi malt in
lane with bottle type of other malt drink positively effect consumption or
shelf display of the product.
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
HO:- Effective marketing communication increase
customers satisfaction with Hi malt.
HI:- Effective marketing communication
does not increase customer satisfactions with Hi malt.
HO: Advertising does not creak awareness
for Hi malt in the market.
HI: Advertising creates
awareness for Hi malt in the market
HO: Effective use of personal selling
increases customers patronage for Hi malt.
HI: Effective use of personal
selling does not increase customer patronage for Hi malt.
HO; Sales promotion stimulates more
purchase of Hi malt on the market.
HI: Sales promotion does not
strumlate more purchase of Hi malt in the market.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
We must admit that although more less has been said and written in
the importance of marketing communication endence still abound to show that
many marketing organizations either do not bother to imbibe and hence pratise
basic communication principles or are deficient in the proper skills and
rudiments of marketing strategy the result of this state, the respect the
researcher aims of focusing the attention of marketing communication.
Today, the emphasis of the Nigeria government is on employment, privatization,
commercialization, competition, economic growth an development. Marketing
communication has the potentials of stimulating the economy and also improving
It is hoped that the findings of this study and subsequent recommendation will
benefit not only the selected organization and performance of its product in
the market but other marketing organization and product areas. On the
whole, the study is significance became it will be useful to scholars as new
problems are likely to be recovered in the processed of investigation.
Finally, this study will contribute to knowledge since the investigation is
essentially aimed at problem solving.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Communication: the art and science of transmitting, information,
idea, attitudes or opinions, facts, instructions, thoughts and images from one
person to another or one group to another.
MARKETING COMMUNICATION: Communication
undertaken to persuade others to accept ideas, concepts or things. Marketing
communication could use marketing communication could use marketing promotional
tools, namely advertising personal selling, sales promotion, publicity and
public relations. This is so because promotion is the marketing
communication process utilizing personal or non-personal mean to remind, inform
and persuade buyers or potential buyers of the organizations products.
social system or an organized body of persons working together to achieve a
common purpose. Examples include business or marketing organization in
the context of this study means marketing organization.
plan, picture in the mind, purpose opinion.
technical communication fargon for discussing idea formation. It is
therefore the thought or an idea which the sender wants to relay to the receiver.
act of putting the massage together in a certain code or symbols that can be
understand by both the source and receiver. These codes or symbols could
be words, letters, sentences or signs that represent the idea of the source of
communication. Encoding can therefore be described as the transmission by
the source of an already conceived idea into a message appropriate for
transmission to the recover.
translation of an encoded message giving it meaning. This is done by the
receiver and it is important that there is a clear understanding of the
refers to the signals sent from the hastener / receiver to the speaker / source
in order to tell the speaker how far he is understood and possible report the
acceptability or non-acceptability, of the message. It also indicate
whether individuals, organizational or consumer behavioural change has taken
place as a result of communication.
ability to bring about the desired or intended result or extent to which it is
is the means by which a message travels from sources to a receiver or audience
and back. It is the message carrier.
product is any thing produced by nature or by man which a buyer acquires or
purchase to satisfy a need or want. It has to be priced and have value.
PRODUCT PORIFOLIO: Product
range, units or group handled by an organization.
EXTERNAL PUBLICS: Individuals
or organization an individuals or an organization communicates with. They
includes consumer, communicates, neighbours, dealers, distributors, suppliers,
shareholders, government agencies, educators and other publics.
amount or quantity of product or goods that the consumers with, to purchase at
a particular price at a specific time.
choice or choosing a particular brand from different brands of the same product
category or preferring a particular brand in a wide variety of other products
of the same product category.
CONSUMERS PERCEPTION: The
way Hi malt advertisements are seem be consumers.
market is that area where the company’s product is affectively patronized or
the area the company’s product is affectively patronized or the area the
company expects and plans effectively patronage.
SALESMANS/ SALES REPRESENTATNES: These
are able bodied men employed and in some cases trained by a company for the
sales of its products through demonstration and personal conviction of customer
about the product.
FREE SAMPLES: Free
samples are a quantity of a company’s product that are used or given to
prospective customers free when the products is new and unknown in the
market. It is done to create product awareness.
budget is a financial / quantitative statement prepared and approved prior to a
specific period of operation of an enterprise. It is normally used as guide for
production, expenditure and sales.
or activity of securing non-paid significant editorial space, news, stories and
features in all media read, reviewed or head by a company’s customers or
prospects for the specific purpose of gaining credibility and attention an
ultimately meeting the sales goals of the organization.
SALES PROMOTION: These
are a number of techniques that marketer use to stimulate immediate
sales. Thee technique or activities includes contests, trade shows,
sampling, and premiums, sales promotion is designed to supplement and
co-ordinate person selling and advertising efforts.
PERSONAL SELLING: This
is person to person communication meant to assist a sales person personate a
prospect to bring a product or to act favourably upon an idea or a cause.
communication is the media, paid for by an identifiable sponsor and directed at
a target audience with the aim of importing information about a product,
services, idea or opinion.
PUBLIC RELATIONS: Is a
philosophy of management whose aim and objectives is the establishment of
understanding report and goodwill between an organization and its public,
public relation uses a two way communication system between the organization
and its publics to achieve its social management philosophy.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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