These study on the effect of pricing strategies on the marketing
of agricultural products in Enugu State. With particular attention to Udi
L. G. A Council was carried out with the some for the following objectives.
To evaluate the possible means of reducing or removing entirely the activities
of middlemen to remove the problem of heading.
To appreciate the channel of information flow which will help bridge the
communication gab which exist in the rice market in the State.
To evaluate the best possible means or best strategy to be used in making the
product (Rice) available in the Urban town and Cities thereby eliminating the
problem of price variations.
To recommend based on the findings possible ways of
activating the problem effecting rice marketing (pricing and strategies in
1.1 Statement of the
1.2 Objectives of the
1.3 Formulation of the
1.4 Significance of the
2.1 Distribution system in
2.2 Choosing a channel of
– meaning and
3.1 Sources of the
3.2 Method of investigation
3.6 Validation of
Presentation and analysis of
4.1 Test of
Summary of findings, recommendation and conclusion.
5.1 Summary of
Today, the mentioning of the word marketing has a lot of things
and meanings to send to a lay man. The word marketing has to be
understood and interpreted by any lay man as meaning the same things as
trading. But to a professional, marketing is starts before production and
ends after consumption. We also talk about societal marketing concept
which puts the entire society into consideration when doing any thing
unlike trading which emphasizes on selling.
In an attempt to define the term marketing, it is good to look at some
definition given by some authorities and professionals in the
field. It should also be noted that there is no generally accepted
definition of marketing rather each person tries to took at marketing to reflect
the functions performed by him therefore we would not make mistakes if we say
that there are as many definitions of marketing as there are many
According to Philip Kotler (1980), marketing is “Human activity directed at
satisfying needs and wants through exchange process.” This
definition has some key words as the operative words, such as needs,
wants and exchange, Needs, this defined as a state felt
deprivation in person. Wants are the expression of human needs as they are sharped
by a person, culture and individual development. And want must be
backed with money for it to be meaningful to the marketer Exchange is
obtaining a desired object from some one offering in return something of
Nwokoye (1981) defined marketing a s the “ set of activities that
facilitate exchange transaction involving economic goods and services for
the ultimate purpose of satisfying human needs. The activities here
includes product development, production, packaging, branding,
transportation, storage, promotion, distribution, pricing and so on.
Ifezue (1990) define marketing as’ a process which identifies,
anticipates and satisfies consumes needs and wants through conception, promotion
mutual exchange and physical distribution of economic goods and services.
Yet, Institute of marketing, london (1945) defined marketing as “a management
process which identifies, anticipates and supply consumers requirements
efficiently and profitably.
From the above definition, one can understand that market is said to encompass
a lot of activities and emphasizes a lot on consumer satisfaction and puts the
marketer at a profit.
From the above definitions, marketing of agricultural produce (Rice) can be
looked at as the application of marketing knowledge to the marketing of
One may be correct to say that market starts when farmers plan their output in
respect to expected market demand to pricing of the produce in relation to the
existing market price till the product gets to the ultimate consumer.
‘Because of the above, we picked up to find out in this study the pricing and
strategies used in holding the produce. (Rice) and make some recommendation
or how best to improve the marketing of the produce.
By the time we finish this work, we will be able to find out the strategies
used in the pricing of rice and find out if the shortfall in the
strategies (If any) are responsible for the inadequate supply
of rice to the consumers who need the product (Rice).
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Before now, the production of rice used to be
at the very low level and because this, rice was left for the rich man
who can afford the cost. The reason for this being that because the
production was left unmechanized through some attempts were made towards
increasing the put but one much have been achieved.
It is based on above reason that we have choosen to find out the
problems inherent in the rice marketing in Enugu State. The problems which are
identified fall in the following:-
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objectives of this study is to evaluate the marketing of
rice (agricultural produce) in Enugu State.
This work wants to pay particular attention.
Discover the problem (s) Inherent in rice marketing.
Evaluate the possible means of reducing or removing entirely
the activities of middlemen to remove the problem of heading.
Evaluate the possible means or best strategy to be used in making
the product (rice) available in the Urban town and cities thereby eliminating
the problem of price variations.
Appreciate the channel of information flow, which will help bridge
the communication gab which exist in the rice market in state.
To recommend based on the finding possible ways of achieving the
problem effecting rice marketing (pricing and strategies in Enugu State).
FORMULATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS
in mind the above objectives of this study, the following hypothesis have
been put forward:
Ho1) The marketing functions f rice
distributions are still below the expectations of consumers.
Hpg) The marketing functions of rice
distributions are equal to the expectations of consumer.
Ho2) Lack of information within rice market
leads to price variations.
HA2) Lack of information within rice market does not
lead to price variations.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The role of agricultural products and rice in particular in the
nations economy and its importance cannot be over emphasized.
The deadline in the rice production and fluctuation in price and
price and its effects on the citizen as well as the economy were not taken
seriously, hence the study.
This study will of great importance to the government and other
interested group (s) especially the farmers, processors, distributors and even
consumers to know how to solve the problem inherent in marketing of it, say by
way of revamping and revatalizing the industry so as to meet the needs of the
In the like manner, this study will recommend the best production
and adequate strategy to make the product available to the consumers at the
right time, place and at a lasers price. Also, it will aim at pointing out
other areas in rice marketing that need greater and urgent attention.
Finally, this study will help the researcher in that it will
expose him to the practical aspect of marketing research and widen his
knowledge about rice production. Also, it will serve as a help to others who
may want t carry out research in any related areas.
In this work, we studied Enugu State as whole. The reason behind
our studying the entire state is to collect a broad information that will cover
the variations involved in the pricing and strategies in the different areas of
The areas covered in Enugu state zones are Abakaliki, Enugu and
Nsukka zone. This spread was considered necessary because through some of the
zones are more of production concentration than others, the reverse is the
cause when considering marketing and consumption of rice. Example of this is
the fact that Abakaliki and Ugboaka in Enugu Zone and Adani in Nsukka Zone have
higher production, concentration for rice, Enugu and Nsukka happen to have
higher consumption concentration.
It is based on th above that we have in this work chosen to
study the entire state to find out the variation (s) in pricing and strategies.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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