This study was carried at analyzing the effectiveness and problems of
classified advertising in Enugu. The study appraised the use of classified
advertising in Enugu metropolis its perception by the Enugu audience, its
advantages and major set backs. The study also examined the extent to which
classified advertising achieves advertisement objectives in Enugu and the
various opportunities and benefit of classified advert which media organisation
and advertisers in Enugu can exploit. Finally, the study tried to find out the
ethical level of classified advertising in Enugu metropolis.
To generate answers to the study two sets of questionnaires were administered.
One to the print media organisations and the other to advertisers and consumers
of classified columns. It was discovered after a detailed analysis. The
hypotheses formulated where tested using chi- square (X2).
The sample size were determining using Topman formular fo advertiser.
(Customers) why senses survey was used for management and relevant staff.
= standard deviation (or
the desired 1.96)
and estimated standard error of 5%
The sample size (N) was calculated as
= (2)e (P)
(1 – P)
= (1 – 96)2 (0.9
)(1 – 0.9)
= (1 – 96)2 (0.9
The data generated through the two sets of questionnaires that classified advertising
is not frequently used by advertisers in Enugu metropolis, at the same time
many users in Enugu metropolis are skeptical about its operation. The cost of
classified advertising was considered by many advertisers to be moderated when
related to other advertisement modes in Enugu. Also classified advertising was
seen to have two major advantages in the sense that advertisers see it as being
relatively cheap and easy to use.
Other findings made in this study are that classified advertising in Enugu is
mainly used by lower class advertisers who normally advertise change of name,
general goods, employment, real estate activities and others.
In this order of frequency. This nullified the initial position held that
classified advertising is used for inconsequential purposdes. The research also
revealed that classified advertising has low readership in Enugu metropolis and
is not a major profit center in the print industry. Finally, it was
observed that classified advertising at present is not an effective advertising
mode in Enugu and that it has low ethical rating.
Following these finding, the researcher recommended that print media
organisation should present a united front to enlightened both the masses and
advertisers on the operation and users of classified advertising. To make
classified advertising a major profit center, aggressive marketing of
classified column was recommended. Garing readership was recommended to be made
part of the marketing task in the print business. this will help talkle the
general low readership for classified advertising. On the low ethical relating
for classified advertising, a more formal approach for the verification of
claims in the classified adverts was recommended.
Classified adverts should also be made more conspicuous by making good use of
design elements. More e of this sort was also recommended to reveal low
classified advertising can be effectively used in Enugu metropolis.
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Statement of hypothesis
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
2.1 Overview of Advertising
2.2 The roles of advertising in marketing
2.3 Advertising to the marketing mix
2.4 Types of advertising
2.5 Overview of classified advertising
2.6 Role of classified advertising
2.7 The use of classified advertising in Enugu
2.8 Future of classified advertising in Enugu
3.1 Sources of data
of the study
of data treatment and analysis
Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data
4.1 Presentation and analysis of
4.2 Test of hypotheses.
Summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion
5.1 Summary of findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Any one who looks seriously at today’s business environment in
Nigeria will notice remarkable change, especially in the area of marketing
communication. These changes in marketing communicating have become more like a
revolution with firms placing more emphasis on advertising as a tool for
communicating their marketing massages. Modern marketing calls for more than
developing a good product, pricing it attractive and making it readily
accessible to target customers (Kotler, 1988: 587) companies must design
and disseminate sufficient information through advertising (Asuguo Vol. 4-6
April June 1995: 11). Advertising is any form of non personal communication
that is transmitted to a given audience through mass media.
The 1980’s and 1900’s had seen more changes and development in
advertising in Nigeria than had occurred during the previous years. Advertising
tend to represent the economic progress of societies and in this respect, it
ranges from the sophistication of the industrialized world to the new life
style of the developing nations. Until recently believing in the effectiveness
of advertising and promotion has largely been a matter of faith. (Jefkin, 1991:
17) but today, many firms are becoming more sensitive in selecting both the
media and the form in which their products are advertised in the selected media.
In Nigeria, among the most popularly used primary media are radio,
television and the press. The press is one of the cheapest means of reading a
large number of unknown or unidentified prospective buyer (Jefkin, 1991: 74),
whether they be in a town, region or even the entire country. There are three
(3) main way by which one can advertise in the press – classified advertising
display, advertising and special advertising, for example public notices,
political advertising appears in the classified column of newspapers, magazines
and journals, they are made of words which are brought together to from copies.
The question now is how effective is this form of advertising
especially in Nigeria? only a thorough understanding of its application in
respect of its relative uses, strength, weaknesses and other dimensions, can
assure appropriate use and spending on it. This is why it is necessary for
practitioners, experts and scholars in marketing communication to continue
carrying out a research studies of this sort to be sure of its uses and
Again, the economic recession and deregulation of the economy has
eroded the consumers purchasing power, there by compelling them to be more
mindful to their spending now, more than ever. This has also stimulated
competition for national sales heat up, newspapers and magazine need to ensure
that they remain continually viable by finding other important ways of revenue
generation. This study has there fore become necessary to examine the operation
of classified advertising in Enugu metropolis to find ways by which it can be
used as a variable means of revenue generation in the press media. The
importance of classified advertising, they are bedeviled by some problems. Thus
in this research the researcher takes a critical look at the effectiveness and
problems of classified advertising in Enugu metropolis.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Classified advertising is one of the important methods used by
advertisers to create awareness of goods and services. It s a huge and still
largely untapped market, because newspapers still fail to recognize the
opportunities and potential profits in classified advertising.
The rapid rate at which small scale firms spring up calls for
unexpensive and attractive ways of communicating massages to the target
audience. But a school of thought believes that classified advertising are used
for inconsequencial adverts. At the same time, there are ambiguities as to the
operation of classified advertising and doubt on its adequacy in achieving
advertising objectives, in the view of this many advertisers are felt to follow
appreciate the role of classified advert, their target audience, thus this
research work. The researcher focused on finding why the advertisers to have
not follow appreciated the method. Assessing the extend, is the use of this
method can effectively reach the target customers, what possible problems
militates against the use of classified advertising?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the
effectiveness and the problems of classified advertising in Enugu metropolis.
Other objectives are. To evaluate the use of classified advertising in Enugu
metropolis. To determine the effectiveness of classified advertising in
relation to cost and reach.
To determine the extence which classified advertising creates
awareness of goods and services. To examine the advantages which classified
advertising has over other forms of advertising. Highlight the various
opportunities which the media house can export in classified advertising. To
make appropriate recommendations base on the findings of the study.
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
Based on the objectives, the following hypotheses were formulated:
Advertising does not create customers awareness of goods and services.
Advertising create customers awareness of goods and services.
Advertising is not an effective mode for advertising in Enugu metropolis
Advertising is an effective mode for advertising in Enugu metropolis.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study would be of benefit to practitioners, experts and
scholars in marketing communication a lot of information on the operation of
Apart from these groups, media houses in the country would be provided insight
to the strength, weaknesses and opportunities in classified advertising which
they can exploit to increase their revenue.
The out come of this study will be beneficial to companies, politicians small
scale business, agents, non profit organisation, government and his general
public. For it will help them on how to effectively make the use of problems
and prospect of classified advertising.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study only under took an analysis of the effectiveness and
problems of classified advertising.
However in the view of times, money and other constraints emphasis
was placed on newspapers houses in Enugu metropolis with emphasis on
advertisers using classified columns in the selected dates.
1.7 DEFINITION OF
easy understanding of this study the researcher defines the following terms.
1. Target audiences: The marketing communication
must identify the target audience. The target audience may be individuals,
groups, or any of the marketers publics. They may be customer users, deciders
or influencers. The audience determine the content of the massages, the medium
and the timing (Ebue April 2000: 14).
This is the broad name for special kinds of sales stimulating activities other
than advertising, personal selling and publicity. It is often thought of as a
special selling incentive. Anything that would more sales incentive. Anything
that would more sales above the existing level is promotion (Ebue 2000: 7).
This is management activities responsible for identifying anticipating and
satisfying customer needs and wants through exchange process. (Ebue 2001: 3).
This is define as the non – personal communication of information, usually paid
for and usually persuasive in natures, about products goods and services. Or
ideas by identified sponsor through various media (Bovee and Arens 1992: 7).
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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