The study investigated the causes and effects
of malnutrition in children in Ovia North East Local Government Area, using
mothers and health workers as population target. The sampling method was
utilized in picking out the respondents. The questionnaire method was used.
Questions such as:
Is there knowledge of awareness of proper nutritional practices among mothers?
2. Is lack of nutrition education responsible for poor feeding
3. Is starvation a cause of malnutrition?
Investigation revealed that malnutrition exist
amongst children in Ovia North East Local Government Area and it occurs as a
result of ignorance. In conclusion, suggestions were made base on the findings.
Malnutrition has got its root cause from ignorance and poverty. Poverty
alleviation is an area the government should show more interest in. Finally, no
doubt that these project will help increase mother’s awareness about the causes
and effect of malnutrition in Ovia North East Local Government in Edo State.
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Definition of terms
Review of related literature
Definition of population
Administration of questionnaires
Validity of instrument
Analysis of data
Data analysis and interpretation
Discussion of findings
Recommendations for further study
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Malnutrition is a term peculiar to under develop and developing
Malnutrition has been defined
in different ways for example, Marian Hill (1989) regards malnutrition as the
absence of certain essential food elements in ones diet.
Billies nurses dictionary (18th edition) defines malnutrition as
the condition in which nutrition is defective in quantity.
Malnutrition is the condition
that occurs when a persons’ body is not getting enough nutrients. The condition
may result from an inadequate or imbalanced diet, digestive difficulties,
absorption problems or other medical conditions.
Malnutrition is a general term for a medical condition caused by
an improper or insufficient diet, it often refers to under nutrition resulting
from inadequate consumption or excessive loss of nutrients but the term can
also encompass over nutrition from overeating or excessive intake of specific
nutrients. An individual will experience malnutrition if the appropriate amount
of or quality of nutrients comprising a healthy diet is not consumed for an
extended period of time.
Malnutrition is a situation whereby people feed but not in the
appropriate portion. A state when there is deficiency or excess of any one of
the essential classes of food, such as carbohydrates, fat, protein etc. A body
system needs the six classes of food in the correct proportion in order provide
growth good health and energy to regulate the body system in good shape and to
prevent diseases. The absent of this will adversely affect individual. An
extended period of malnutrition can result in starvation disease and infection.
According to Jean Ziegler (2007) sees malnutrition to be as a result of several
conditions. First, sufficient and proper food may not be available because of
inadequate agricultural produce. Malnutrition is the condition that develops when
the body does not get the right amount of the vitamins, minerals and other
nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function. Malnutrition
may be mild enough to show no symptoms. However, in some cases it may be so
severe that the damage done is irreversible even though the individual survives.
continues to be a significant problem, especially among children who cannot
fend adequately for themselves. Poverty, natural disasters, political problems
and war, all contribute to conditions of epidemics of malnutrition and
starvation. This is not just in developing countries alones symptoms vary with
the specific malnutrition related disorder. However, some general symptoms
include fatigue, dizziness, weight loss and decreased immune response.
Most commonly, malnourished
people either do not have enough calories in their diet, or are
eating a diet that lacks proteins, vitamins or trace of minerals. Medical
problems arising from malnutrition are commonly referred to as deficiency
diseases such as kwashiokor, marasmus, anemia etc.
Nkeiruka Nwabah (2001) refer malnutrition as a state of impaired
functional ability or deficient structural integrity or development brought
about by a discrepancy between the supply to the body tissues of essential
nutrients and the specific biological demand for them. The causes of
malnutrition are as manifold as its clinically and sub-clinical manifestations.
Primary malnutrition is the result of insufficient intake of essential
nutrients because of lack of food either because of crop failure, war or
poverty, economic depression and a host of other factors, many of which are
concerned with the external environment.
There is another aspects of
malnutrition problems of “over nutrition” and excess food intake which a large
proportion of the population and have led to obesity as well as to other
disease commonly associated with civilization.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
In realization of the fact that
malnutrition has been a problems among children in our society with its
contribution to the high rate of retarded growth which affects the children
from growing properly. The problems facing malnutrition or the causes that lead
to malnutrition are;
Loss of appetite: This is whereby a child refuses to eat maybe because the baby
is sick or the child does not like that particular food.
Poverty: This is one of the causes of malnutrition in our society today; this
is whereby money is not available to purchase the necessary food we need.
According to Michael Wines ten percent of all members of low-income households
do not always have enough healthful food to eat, protein-energy malnutrition
occurs in 50% of surgical patients and in 48% in all other hospitals patients.
Lack of single vitamin: Lack of a single vitamin, malnutrition can occur or it
can be because a person is not getting enough food.
Insufficient food supply: This is whereby people are not getting enough food,
this is whereby enough food is not supply into the country.
Food taboos: Food taboos are food, which are forbidden by people for one reason
or the other. E.g. religious or cultural believes they have no scientific foundations
and have been handed over from generation to generation. These thus deprive the
individual from eating a balance diet.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of carrying this
research is to examine the causes and effects of malnutrition on children. The
work aims at dealing with the following objectives;
To know the causes and effects
To know what malnutrition is
To know the problems facing
malnutrition and their prevention
To enlighten the people with
the consequences of malnutrition
Based on this study, the
following research questions are formulated for testing;
Is there knowledge of proper nutritional practices among mothers?
Do the level of financial status determine the nutritional practice for the
Is lack of nutrition education responsible for poor feeding?
Is starvation a cause of malnutrition?
Do mothers have the knowledge of causes and symptoms of nutritional diseases
and how it can be treated?
There is no significant relationship between awareness and nutritional
practices among mothers
There is significant relationship between the financial status and nutritional
practices for the child.
There is significant relationship between nutrition education and poor
There is significant relationship between starvation, and malnutrition.
There is no significant relationship between mother’s knowledge of causes and
symptoms of nutritional diseases.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research helps the children/parents to know what malnutrition
and their symptoms is all about, how they can prevent malnutrition and cater
for those who are malnourished.
This study will help to
enlighten the parents/guardian the functions of good nutritional diet and the
consequences of ignoring good diet.
This research will also help to
know the causes and problems facing malnutrition in our society and how we can
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is strictly limited to children in Ovia North East
Local Governemnt Area of Edo State.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
It would be necessary at this
point to make clear the meaning of some words used in this study.
Peculiar: Strange, eccentric,
belonging exclusively to one person or place or thing special.
Absorption: Take in, combine
into itself or oneself, combine into occupy the attention or interest.
Pathological: Study of disease
Calorie: Unit of heat, unit of
the energy producing value of food
Typically: Having the
distinctive qualities of a particular type of person or thing
Extreme: Very great or intense,
at the end (s), outermost, going to great lengths in actions or views, extreme
degree or act or condition.
Sufficient: When something is
Term: Fixed or limited period,
period of weeks during which a law court holds sessions or school holds
Malnourished, sick persons people suffering from deficiency.
Inadequate: Not adequate, not
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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