project was carried out in order to identify and examine the causes and effect
of teenage pregnancy on their academic pursuit, including its general and
social implications in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. Chapter one
focuses on introduction (background to the study), statement of problem purpose
of study. Research question basic assumption, scope of the study limitation of
the study, and definition of terms. However, apart from the general
introduction in the first chapter, chapter two deals with the review of related
and relevant literatures. This chapter will enable the reader to gain an
insight into the concept of teenage pregnancy, teenage pregnancy, its causes
its general and social consequences. Chapter three involves the
research method. The method used for data collection were questionnaire and
oral inter view and method of data analysis through frequency counts and simple
Chapter four talks about the detail analysis of data or
presentation and discussion of results. It was discovered that teenage
pregnancy affect the academic and career prospects of the teenage involved.
Chapter five consists of summary, conclusion, recommendation and references in
conclusion it was obvious that a teenage student who become pregnant is not
likely to complete her education. And the non-completion of a university
education could limit her life earning potential which could inturn make her child
to live in a cycle of poverty out of which is hard to broke. In order to
prevents attack and reduce the rate of teenage pregnancy, it was recommended
that teenagers should be given abstinence education as well as sex education.
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope or delimitation of the study
Definition of terms
Population of the study
Sample and sampling procedure
Administration of instrument
Method of data analysis
Data analysis and interpretation
Summary, conclusion and recommendations
Suggestions for further research
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
a stage in life in which the individual (male or female) begins to develop
sexual characteristics. It is usually between the ages of 13-19 years. At this
stage in life, sexual desires are often at their peak. Teenagers are in what
Bible calls “ the bloom of youth” a time when their sexual organs develop and
they become capable of having children.
begins at the moment a single spectrum fertilized a matured ovum (egg). In a
normal ejaculation during sexual intercourse, about 200, 400 million sperm are
deposited into the upper vagina, of this number; a few thousand remain within
the virginal and die within 3 days. Only a few manage to make their way into
the body of the uterus and move upward to the fallopian tubes where
fertilization occurs. Only one sperm penetrates the membrane of the ovum to
unit with the egg. When this occurs, a zygote is formed. The fertilized egg
then makes its way down to the fallopian tube to the uterus for implantation.
The journey to the uterus may result ton pregnancy.
fact that most parents pay less attention to their children, coupled with the
fact that teenagers today are growing up in a culture in which peers,
television and motion pictures, music and magazine often transmit either covert
or overt message that unmarried sexual relationship (specifically those
involving teenagers) are common accepted and at times expected behaviour have
contributed immensely to the moral decadence rampant among our teenagers.
Education about responsible sexual behaviour and specific clear information
about the consequences of sexual intercourse (including pregnancy, sexual
transmitted disease and psychological effects) are frequently not offered in
the home, at school or in the community settings. Therefore, much of the sex
education teenagers receive filters through misinformed and/or unified peers.
of course lead teenagers into early dating behaviour (which lead to premarital
sex) and early use of alcohol or other drugs, including tobacco products, which
could lead to pregnancy. Research has shown that early dating at age 12 is
associated with a 91% chance of being sexually involved before age 19 and
dating at 13 is associated with a 36% probability of sexual involvement during
adolescent or teenage (Mominic Marchiono, 2002). He went further to say that a
sexually active teenage who does not use contraceptive has a 90% chance of
becoming pregnant with in 1 years. My boyfriend was a cute guy, he had money
and we could go places and have fun. When I missed my period, I realised
something was wrong. How was I to tell mom? How could this happen to me? I was
only 126 years old, and I didn’t know what to do “Nicole”.
be pregnant is a right that is supposed to be shared with ones life partners
unfortunately, due to various reasons, it has been abused by our teenagers
today. Statistically four in ten girls become pregnant before 20 over 900-1000
teenagers pregnancies annually in united states, but reflects some of the
realities faced by pregnant teenagers all over the world. And about 40% of
teenage mothers are under 18 years of age (Awake, October 8 2004). This is as a
result of various factors, such as the effects of broken homes, ignorance of
the conservancies of sexual activities, lack of self-respect on the part of
some teenagers to experience sex, as well as their failure to take necessary
precautions (for sample, having sexual intercourse without adequate
This in turn has lead to a high rate of school drop out, cycle of
poverty, destitution, increased rate of abortion, emotional depression high
level of delinquency, high mortality rate, reduced labour force as well as drop
in the standard of living of the teenagers involved, their families and the
society in general. It should be noted that both teenage mother and father may
suffer economic hardship and fail to achieve their education and career goals,
for example, at Texas in united states, teenage pregnancy and early marriage
are reported reasons for leaving school, among many others, which are
correlated to different specific aspects of social, economic and psychological
needs that were not fulfilled (Galimbertti, Percy Anthonio, 2005). The related
literature suggests that many students who dropout of school does not return.
Chase-Lansdale and Coley (1998) suggest that if they decide to
dropout, 30% return and eventually graduate. Those who could not complete their
high school (secondary school) education often find themselves in a cycle of
poverty out of which is hard to break. Previous studies have also found that by
dropping out of school, thus disrupting their education, the school leavers
face restrictions and disadvantages in the labour market. Low wages would
diminish their likelihood of improving their standards of living (Galimbertti,
Percy Antonio, 2005).
Despite the continuous concern over the issue of teenage pregnancy
and inspite of its captions in Egor Local government Area, only very few
research investigations have been carried out to provide relevant social
science and orthodox data or information for designing appropriate intervention
policies and programmes to address the problem. It is therefore, imperative to
advice teenagers to abstain from sex and should be encouraged to postpone
sexual involvement until marriage or until they are mature and skilled enough
to handle sexual activities in a responsible manners as well as educate them on
the adverse effects of sexual relationship/intercourse at early age. They
should also be provided with information on pregnancy prevention if they become
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been
observed that teenage pregnancy has remained persistent in our local
communities due to various contributing factors and has had negative imparts on
the life of the teenagers involved, for example, Spear (2001) affirms that
teenage mothers are likely to complete high school education (i.e secondary
school education) the non completion of a secondary school education limit the life
earning potentials among the teenage population, which could perpetuate the
cycle of impoverishment among them.
this, the study is therefore, concerned with the identification and assessment
of the causes and effects of teenage pregnancy on the academic performance of
the teenagers involved as well as exploring various strategies through which it
can be avoided, prevented or tackled in Egor local government area, so as to
enable teenage mothers and fathers as well as sexually active teenagers who
would have dropped out of school due to teenage pregnancy to achieve their
educational and career goals.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
is designed to achieve the following purpose. To identify and critically
examine various factors that influence and contribute to the high rate of
teenage pregnancy in Egor Locals government area. To ascertain the
adverse effects of teenage pregnancy on the teenagers and their academic
performance as well as the local government area under investigation.
ascertain the extent to which broken homes, poverty, and adverse life
circumstances, ignorance of the consequences of sexual activity, sexual abuse
all coercion and the changing attitude towards sex have influenced and
contributed to teenage pregnancy in Egor Local Government Area under study.
research questions were raised to guide this study. They are as follows:
1.What are the causes of teenage pregnancy>
2.Do the changing attitude towards sex influence
and contribute to the rate of teenage pregnancy?
3.Does teenage pregnancy affect their academic
4.What are the necessary measures that must be
taken to attack, prevent and reduce teenage pregnancy?
is based on the following assumptions:
teenage pregnancy is an epidemic and involves a number of complex social and
has been an increase in the rate of teenage pregnancy.
homes, and poverty and adverse life circumstances are not strange factors
influencing and contributing to teenage pregnancy.
ignorance of the consequences of sexual activity, sexual abuse and coercion as
well as the changing attitudes towards sex can contribute to teenage pregnancy.
education about responsible sexual behaviour and specific, clear information
about the consequences of sexual intercourse are beautifully not offered in the
home, at school or in community setting.
That it is
possible to prevent and reduce teenage pregnancy in Egor local government area.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The use of
any research study is to improve the area immediately concerned with the study
and the society at large. The significance of the study can not be
over-emphasized. This study identifies and examines performance in Egor local
government area and it is therefore, hoped that the result of this study would help
to achieve the following.
vital information on the possible causes and adverse effects on teenage
pregnancy on their academic performance. Such information is very vital in
providing lasting solution to the problems.
parents and teenager to clearly understand the adverse effects of teenage
pregnancy with all of its implications.
adequate information to every school in the local government area under study,
concerning the various methods that can be used to avoid or prevent teenage
pregnancy which could lead to school dropout among the students (especially the
sexually active ones). This will go a long way in enabling the students to
accomplish that educational and career prospects.
Egor local government council (health and education divisions) in identifying
and assessing the various contributing factors and the implications of teenage
pregnancy in the local government area as well as enabling t hem to develop
strategies for alleviating teenage pregnancy in the twenty-first (21st) century.
other researchers who may be interested in carrying out further investigation
on this topic.
policy planners and organizers to programmes for children and teenagers to know
the necessary factors to take into consideration when formulating and
implementation policies and programme designed to sensitize the children and
teenagers about the implication/complications of teenage pregnancy. This study
will also assist them in identifying the various models/approaches/strategies
that can be adopted in attacking, reducing and preventing the occurrences of
would help to stimulate and draw government attention as well as private
agencies, non-government organizations (NGOs), interest towards the issue of
teenage pregnancy and how it can be tackled, prevented and reduced to a barest
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
of this study is limited to Egor Local Government Area. To this end, interview
and questionnaire will be used to collect information from the general public
in determining the factors responsible for the increase in teenage pregnancy.
also focus on the implications of teenage pregnancy on the individuals involved
and their academic performance as well as the society.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
course of this study, a number of terms were employed. Some of the terms will
now be defined for the purpose clarity and understanding. They are as follows:
state of being pregnant.
person who is between 13 and 19 years old.
pregnancy occurring in women age 19 and/or younger.
Ovum: A female cell of a human being, animal,
or plant that can develop into a young human being or animal or plant when
state of bring fertile, that is the ability to produce offspring or power of
Sexualintercourse: the physical ability of sex, usually describing the act
of a man putting his penis inside a woman Virginia.
practice of preventing a woman from becoming pregnant. It is also the method of
Uterus: the organ in women and female animal in
which babies develop before they are born.
act of ejaculating, the moment when sperm comes out of mans penis.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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