This project work is an attempt to investigate the causes and
effects of street hawking on children of school age. Chapter one deals with the
introduction of the causes and effects of street hawking on children of school
age. In chapter two, relevant literature from journals and lecture sound books
were reviewed to find out the opinion of other authors about the causes and
effect of street hawking on children of school age. Chapter three talks about
the research methodology employed in the data calculations of the study, the
design of the study, population of the study, samples and sampling techniques,
research instrument used in the study as well as their mode of administration
to respondents. Chapter four however deals with the analysis and interpretation
of data collected and the result of this data were discussed. Finally, chapter
five comprises of the summarization of the study, conclusions made, the
recommendations for solutions and the suggestions for further studies.
Suggestions were made that more researchers should be involved in carrying out
this same type of research in future and it should be conducted in other local
government areas and other states of the federation.
Background of the study
Statement of the study
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study and limitation
Definition of terms
Population of the study
Sample and sampling technique
Instrumentation of research
Validity of the instrument
Reliability of the instrument
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis
Analysis and interpretation of data
Summary, conclusion and recommendation
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
as a developing country needs people who are required for the political social
and economic development of the country.
necessary because Nigeria no longer need money bag citizens, rather she needs
men and women and enough money for the peoples comfort. In order to achieve
this, school or formal education for all in Nigeria is mandatory and necessary.
It is not important that all Nigeria citizens in Benin city in particular get
full formal education and not partial education which leads to school drop out
and human wastage or attrition going by the national policy on education which
recognizes hat greater achievement are get and most explanted through formal
education is essential to Nigerians and so have made primary education in government
schools free for its citizens. Looking at the economic problems in Nigeria
today many familiar most especially those in the low socio- economic classes
engaged their children and weeds in various activities such as hawking
according to the oxford advanced learners dictionary, 6th edition,
means moving to sell things by going from place to place asking people to buy
Olalere (2007) identified two main types of hawkers which are; the hawkers that
carry their goods in wheels and the side walk hawkers who sit with their wares
beside the road. According to Olalere, the capital out lay for types of trade
is determined by nature of goods traded in. the hawker builds cart to suit his
or her purpose
also employs different media of advertising their wares like; buy your sweet
orange, the hawker may also decided to short the goods of their names in the
manner peculiar and appealing to people.
there hawkers sell different goods, which one might not go out ordinary to buy,
except on impulse basis if we come across them on the way.
side of the hawker, they sit by their goods and attend to those who come to
them. The capital required is determined by the nature of the wares for
instance Fifty Naira N 50, OO
would appear sufficient for a side hawker who is trading in orange while a
provision seller who sells beverages would require a higher outlay.
business grows increasing by in many Nigerian cities and towns. Hawking also
take place in the rural areas but are mostly alone in the evenings when people
are back from the farm, village markets or school. The situation is ever different
in urban areas. Hawking goes on in the urban area from morning to evening on a
situation has no doubt affected the child’s schooling specifically another
important aspect of the child’s developmental stage. Ajayi and Orphan and a
year two student in the department of banking and finance of the university of
Benin who sells news papers daily among the street says “we do this thing
(hawking) everyday in order to survive in school and to help our younger
siblings at home who are not even in schools. These developments are making
life unbearable form as I have always with drawn from school several times.
a child who shares the school time with street hawking is always late to school
and he or she is bound to develop immaturities in school work which may include
poor studying habits, lack of skills, low self esteem and low performance in
class hence resulting in failure or total dropping out of school.
It has been
heard of that some parents in towns and cities withdrawn their children from
school in order to send them hawking so as to make more money for the family up
cases, some children are always dropped out from school for a term or even a
whole year and when they get back to school (that if they go back to it all)
they become too big for their cohort and they fall victims of name calling by
younger classmates. This type of situation could have many negative effects on
the children psychologically who became under achiever or might develop school
phobia. Such children at the end of the day fail or drop out at the end of day.
for money to make ends meet in a depressed economy is obviously one of the
major reasons for parent and guardians sending their children or wards to hawk.
Most of the hawkers are either in primary/ secondary school for the purpose of
hawking and at each day sales the children becomes weak and tired that they are
unable to concentrate, contribute to discussion or study on their own.
parents and guardians do not realize this and children do not know that the
means by which the mental. Moral, social and material inheritance of the
society can be passed from generation to generation is through formal education.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
majority of Nigerian parents believe that children are their God sent helpers
both for economic purpose and other wise. This is why many Nigerians want to
have children until old age. Most average Nigerians do not consider street
hawking by children and some other child labour practices are seen as part of
the socialization process in the society. This brings the question to mind
that, most of the parents whose children are participating in street hawking
may have been street hawkers themselves in their life. Thus, the use of their
wards or children as hawkers may largely reflect their value representation.
today, hawking by children of school age is not entirely new in society. Street
hawking creates room for lack of seriousness and interest in school work, poor
memory, learning difficulty and under achievement the problem of this study
therefore is to investigate the relationship between street hawking and drop
parental level of financial wellbeing influence children street hawking business
street hawking influence the high rate of drop out, delinquency and truancy?
it the parents that often provide the wares or articles of street hawking for
is the level of academic achievement of children who indulge in hawking?
PURPOSE OF STUDY
main purpose of this study is to identify the various factors that cause street
hawking it is also aimed at investigating the various agents that influence
academic pursuit and their effects on the school work of the young hawker and
to channel these influences towards providing a long term solutions
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
is meant to investigate into one of the causes of children inability to
complete their formal education in urban areas
aim of formal education is to prepare children for the future and to get ready
for important responsibilities. This is in line with two out of the five main
objective of the Nigerian would develop citizens who are responsible, bright,
united, strong and self- reliant.
It is a
crystal clear that children street hawking is a distraction and an exposure of
children to bad habit and more danger.
study parents would learn importance of formal education and so give it its
right position while drawing the scale of preference for their children.
parents would then set goals for their children and motivate children in their
academic work so that the children would put formal education which gives self
esteem, respect, prestige and good personality before money making venture.
research, children could learn to improve on the ideas they have about
themselves as this could be a motivating factor for writing formal education.
It would also bring their knowledge that divided loyalty might be an hindrance
to better performance in school
loyalty in the sense that as a street hawker one runs after formal education
partially; The student would also realize that school education prepares people
to get the appropriate key to the doors of wealth
finally, this research will serve as guide to parents, teachers and even policy
makers on now bets to develop children positively in order for them to become
more useful in the society
SCOPE OF STUDY
As a result
of inadequate and limited time, this study is limited to children in Benin city
which is very large city the research therefore had to make use of this
children from such as; ring road, Uselu Lagos road. Sapele road and Akpakpava
in Benin City, Edo state
of this study moves children of school age within seven to fifteen years of age
are street hawkers, the result of the study may not necessarily be used as a
standard of comparism in determining all school drop out but, the findings of
this study is still useful
DEFINITION OF TERMS
In order to
make the study clearer and to avoid confusion, the following term used is
COHORT: these refers to a group of pupils who were admitted at the
beginning of the school year and completed the programme in the same school
DROPOUT: in line, so cannot continue or fall out of school. A
student or pupil who terminates or stops school education before completing its
full course of study
HAWKING: carrying of wares or goods about for sale
PHOBIA: having excessive fear, some object or a particular
situation in the absence of real danger
EDUCATION: the all round training and development given to a
person or a process by which any society passes on its culture (social, ethnic,
intellectual e.t.c) to the young ones
SOCIALIZATION: a process where the comes to behave in manner
demand appropriate by the society in which the person lives
UNDERACHIEVEMENT: the inability of a child to perform up to the
child measures aptitude for academic excellence
ATTRITION: a process of making somebody especially your enemy to
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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