ADOPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS (IFRS); ISSUES AND CHALLENGES TO NIGERIA ECONOMY
This study focused on the process of Adopting and Implementing the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on a developing economy, with particular reference to Nigeria, the benefit and challenges of adoption bearing in mind the prevailing domestic legal and regulatory framework of accounting, awareness campaign and training of personnel. This study based on the data obtained from primary and secondary sources in the context of globalization of International Financial Reporting and the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Nigeria has embraced IFRS in order to participate in the benefits it offers, including attracting foreign direct investment, reduction of the cost of doing business, and across boarder listing. Recommendations were made to forestall such challenges which include strengthening education and training, establishment of an independent body to monitor and enforce accounting and auditing standards. For further studies, the researcher suggested that other researchers should expand their scope of the study to include compliance and checks in the prepared financial statements against IFRS-based financial requirements and also International Standards Setters’ Support (ISSS) towards effective speedy convergence.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Objectives of Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 The scope (Definition) of the study
1.7 The significance of the study
1.8 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1.0 Understanding International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)
2.1.1 Development of Accounting profession in Nigeria; Brief Overview
2.1.2 Legal and regulatory framework of accounting in Nigeria (CAMA 1990).
2.1.3 The Nigeria Accounting Standards Boards (NASB) Act 2003
2.2 Key Differences between NG-GAAP and IFRS
2.3 Accounting Standards Comparison in Detail
2.4 Purpose of IFRS as a Global Accounting Standards.
2.5.0 IFRS Adoption process in Nigeria.
2.5.1 Adoption Statement
2.5.2 Annual Reports in the IFRS
2.5.3 The Operational Review
2.5.4 The Director’s Policies
2.5.5 Accounting Policies
2.5.6 Financial Statements
2.5.7 Income Statement
2.5.8 Balance Sheet
2.5.9 The Cash Flow Statement
2.5.10 The statement of challenges in Equity
2.5.11 The notes to the Accounts
2.5.12 The Auditor’s Report
2.6 Key stakeholders in the adoption and implementation of International Accounting Standards
2.7 Vital Roles Expected of the key stakeholders on the Adoption and implementation of International standards
2.8.0 Challenges to IFRS Adoption in Nigeria
2.8.1 Level of Awareness
2.8.2 Accounting Education and Training
2.8.3 Training Resources
2.8.4 Tax Reporting
2.8.5 Amendment of Existing Laws
2.9 Benefits of Adoption IFRS in Nigeria
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 The Design of the study
3.2 Area of study
3.3 The Population of Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Instrument
3.7 Method for data collection (Administration of instrument)
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data Presentation
4.2 Testing of Hypothesis
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION OF RESULTS
5.1 Discussion of Findings
5.2 Conclusion of the Study
5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies
5.5 Limitation of the Studies
1.1 Background of the study
Globalization of capital markets is an irreversible process, and there are many potential benefits to be gained from mutually recognized and prospected International Accounting Standards. The move towards developing an acceptable global high quality financial reporting standards started in 1973 when the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) was formed by professional accounting bodies from Canada, United States of America, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Netherlands, Australia, Mexico and Japan. The IASC was to formulate uniform and global accounting standards aimed at reducing the discrepancies in international accounting principles and reporting practices. In this light, the IASC was established and has actively been championing the uniformity and standardization of accounting principles for over two decades, Carson in Madawaki, (2012;152). In April 2001, the IASC was reorganized into International Accounting Standards Boards (IASB). Thenceforth, the IASB has updated the already existing International Accounting Standards and referred to them as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).
IFRSs are a single set of high-quality, understandable standards for general purpose of financial reporting which are principles-based in contrast to the rules based approach. IFRS comprises of IAS (41); IFRSs (18); the Standing Interpretation Committee Statements, SICs (11); and the International Financial Reporting Issues Committee Statement, IFRICS (18), Azobu in Akhidime (2011:148). Much of the world is moving in the direction of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). While some countries have been using these standards for decades, they are however new for transition economies like Nigeria. In Nigeria, adoption of IFRS was launched in September 2010, by the Honorable Minister, Federal Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Senator Jubril Martins-Kuye(OFR). The adoption was organized such that all stakeholders use the IFRS by January 2014. The adoption was scheduled to start with Public Listed Entities and Significant Public Interest Entities who are expected to adopt the IFRS by January 2012. All Other Public Interest Entities are expected to mandatorily adopt the IFRS for statutorily purposes by January 2013 and Small and Medium-Sized Entities shall mandatorily adopt IFRS by January 2014, Jubril M. K. & Michael, P. (2010). However, the successful adoption and implementation of these standards will remain a mirage in any country including Nigeria, Chamisa in Madawaki (2012:152). In the light of this therefore, this study focused on the process of adopting the IFRS in Nigeria as a developing economy, the benefits and challenges of adoption, bearing in mind the prevailing domestic legal and regulatory framework of accountancy.
1.2 Statement of the problems
Statement of the problems of this research are as follows;
1. Poor knowledge of IFRS adoption procedures and implementation of the standards in Nigeria.
2. Low level of awareness for preparers and users of financial statements, regulators, educators, auditors and other stakeholders.
3. Accounting education and training among regulatory authorities and stakeholders on the practical implementation of IFRS constitutes a set back to the process.
4. Effect of existing laws on the smooth transition process to IFRS.
5. Difficulty in understanding the impact of IFRS adoption on various sectors of the economy and their economic operations respectively.
1.3 Objective of study
It is the objectives of the study to;
1. Ascertain ways of enhancing proper knowledge and commitment of the preparers of financial statement on IFRS adoption and implementation in Nigeria.
2. To examine the level of public awareness by regulators and other stakeholders in the adoption and implementation of these standards.
3. Determine the effect of accounting education and training among regulatory authorities and stakeholders in the practical implementation of IFRS in Nigeria.
4. Examine the influence of existing Nigeria laws on the smooth transition to IFRS.
5. Ascertain the impact of IFRS adoption on various sectors of the economy and their respective economic operations.
1.4 Research Questions
1. Is there proper knowledge and commitment among the regulatory authorities and the preparers of financial statements towards IFRS adoption and implementation in Nigeria?
2. What is the level of public awareness by regulators and other stakeholders on the adoption and implementation of the standards?
3. Is there significant effect of accounting education and training among regulatory authorities and stakeholders in the practical implementation of IFRS in Nigeria?
4. What influence do existing Nigerian laws have on the smooth transition process to IFRS?
5. What is the impact of the adoption on various sectors of the economy.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Taking into consideration the nature and extent of the problems started so far, the researcher sees it necessary to formulate the following hypotheses:-
Ho1 There is no proper knowledge and commitment among the regulatory authorities and the preparers of financial statements towards IFRS adoption and implementation in Nigeria.
H1 There is proper knowledge and commitment among the regulatory authorities and the preparers of financial statements towards IFRS adoption and implementation in Nigeria.
Ho2 There is low level of public awareness by regulators and other stakeholders in the adoption and implementation of the standards.
H2 There is high level of public awareness by regulators and other stakeholders on the adoption and implementation of the standards.
Ho3 Accounting education and training among regulatory authorities and stakeholders have no significant effect in the practical implementation of IFRS in Nigeria.
H3 Accounting education and training among regulatory authorities and stakeholders have significant effect in the practical implementation of IFRS in Nigeria.
Ho4 There is no significant influence of existing Nigerian laws on the smooth transition process to IFRS.
H4 There is significant influence of the existing Nigerian laws on the smooth transition process to IFRS.
Ho5 The adoption of IFRS has a negative impact on various sectors of the economy.
H5 The adoption of IFRS has a positive impact on various sectors of the economy.
1.7 The significant of the study
In today’s dynamic and globalization of accounting and financial information and interpretation, openness and transparency in annual reporting on an unprecedented scale may be inevitable with the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Also, increasing demands for financial reporting accuracy and transparency, coupled with growing complexity and volume of accounting standards and regulations all over the world, have put a premium on ongoing global convergence efforts and Nigeria’s commitment to adopt IFRS, Jubril, (2010).
This study is of immense benefits apart from assurance of useful and meaningful decision on investment portfolio in the country, there would be attraction of Foreign Direct investment (FDI); Jubril (2010).
The significance of this study would also create easier access to external capital; reduction in the cost of doing business across boarders by eliminating the need for supplementary information from Nigerian companies; easier regulation of financial information in the country; and enhance knowledge of global financial reporting standards in tertiary institutions amongst others, Jubril, (2012).
This study also is significant to the Nigerian economy as the IFRS adoption would enhance transparency in the conduct of business in the private and public sectors of the economy, Jubril,M.K & Michael , P (2010).
Researchers in other developing nations which are yet to adopt the policy may also find this study relevant in spite of technology, expertise and environmental challenges prevailing in the circumstance, than in more advanced nations as IFRS is a globalised and converged policy across the globe.
1.8 Definition of terms
1. IFRS- refers to International Financial Reporting Standards which are applied stating how particular type of transactions and other events should be reported in financial statements i.e. Principle based standards other than the rule based standards.
2. Entity: A person partnership, organization or business that has a legal and separately identifiable existence.
3. Convergence: In its usual sense means coming together.
4. Transition: The process or a period of changing from one state or condition to another.
5. Globalization: Is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies and government of different nations.
6. Contagion: The spread of either economic booms or economic crises throughout a geographic region.
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