Early is a
stage in life in which the individual (male or female) begins to develop sexual
characteristics. It is usually between the ages of 13-19 years. At this stage
in life, sexual desires are often at their peak. Early years are in what Bible
calls “ the bloom of youth” a time when their sexual organs develop and they
become capable of having children.
begins at the moment a single spectrum fertilized a matured ovum (egg). In a
normal ejaculation during sexual intercourse, about 200, 400 million sperm are
deposited into the upper vagina, of this number; a few thousand remain within
the virginal and die within 3 days. Only a few manage to make their way into
the body of the uterus and move upward to the fallopian tubes where
fertilization occurs. Only one sperm penetrates the membrane of the ovum to
unit with the egg. When this occurs, a zygote is formed. The fertilized egg
then makes its way down to the fallopian tube to the uterus for implantation.
The journey to the uterus may result ton pregnancy.
fact that most parents pay less attention to their children, coupled with the
fact that earlyrs today are growing up in a culture in which peers, television
and motion pictures, music and magazine often transmit either covert or overt
message that unmarried sexual relationship (specifically those involving
earlyrs) are common accepted and at times expected behaviour have contributed
immensely to the moral decadence rampant among our earlyrs. Education about responsible
sexual behaviour and specific clear information about the consequences of
sexual intercourse (including pregnancy, sexual transmitted disease and
psychological effects) are frequently not offered in the home, at school or in
the community settings. Therefore, much of the sex education earlyrs receive
filters through misinformed and/or unified peers.
of course lead earlyrs into early dating behaviour (which lead to premarital
sex) and early use of alcohol or other drugs, including tobacco products, which
could lead to pregnancy. Research has shown that early dating at age 12 is
associated with a 91% chance of being sexually involved before age 19 and
dating at 13 is associated with a 36% probability of sexual involvement during adolescent
or early (Mominic Marchiono, 2002). He went further to say that a sexually
active early who does not use contraceptive has a 90% chance of becoming
pregnant with in 1 years. My boyfriend was a cute guy, he had money and we
could go places and have fun. When I missed my period, I realised something was
wrong. How was I to tell mom? How could this happen to me? I was only 126 years
old, and I didn’t know what to do “Nicole”.
be pregnant is a right that is supposed to be shared with ones life partners
unfortunately, due to various reasons, it has been abused by our earlyrs today.
Statistically four in ten girls become pregnant before 20 over 900-1000 earlyrs
pregnancies annually in united states, but reflects some of the realities faced
by pregnant earlyrs all over the world. And about 40% of early mothers are
under 18 years of age (Awake, October 8 2004). This is as a result of various
factors, such as the effects of broken homes, ignorance of the
conservancies of sexual activities, lack of sdelf-respect on the part of some
earlyrs to experience sex, as well as their failure to take necessary
precautions (for sample, having sexual intercourse without adequate
This in turn has lead to a high rate of school drop out, cycle of
poverty, destitution, increased rate of abortion, emotional depression high
level of delinquency, high mortality rate, reduced labour force as well as drop
in the standard of living of the earlyrs involved =, their families and the
society in general. It should be noted that both early mother and father may
suffer economic hardship and fail to achieve their education and career goals,
for example, at Texas in united states, early pregnancy and early marriage are
reported reasons for leaving school, among many others, which are correlated to
different specific aspects of social, economic and psychological needs that
were not fulfilled (Galimbertti, Percy Anthonio, 2005). The related literature
suggests that many students who dropout of school do not return.
Chase-Lansdale and Coley (1998) suggest that if they decide to
dropout, 30% return and eventually graduate. Those who could not complete their
high school (secondary school) education often find themselves in a cycle of
poverty out of which is hard to break. Previous studies have also found that by
dropping out of school, thus disrupting their education, the school leavers
face restrictions and disadvantages in the labour market. Low wages would
diminish their likelihood of improving their standards of living (Galimbertti,
Percy Antonio, 2005).
Despite the continuous concern over the issue of early pregnancy
and inspite of its captions in Egor Local government Area, only very few
research investigations have been carried out to provide relevant social
science and orthodox data or information for designing appropriate intervention
policies and programmes to address the problem. It is therefore, imperative to
advice earlyrs to abstain from sex and should be encouraged to postpone sexual
involvement until marriage or until they are mature and skilled enough to
handle sexual activities in a responsible manners as well as educate them on
the adverse effects of sexual relationship/intercourse at early age. They
should also be provided with information on pregnancy prevention if they become
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been
observed that early pregnancy has remained persistent in our local communities
due to various contributing factors and has had negative imparts on the life of
the earlyrs involved, for example, Spear (2001) affirms that early mothers are
likely to complete high school education (i.e secondary school education) the
non completion of a secondary school education limit the life earning
potentials among the early population, which could perpetuate the cycle of
impoverishment among them.
this, the study is therefore, concerned with the identification and assessment
of the causes and effects of early pregnancy on the academic performance of the
earlyrs involved as well as exploring various strategies through which it can
be avoided, prevented or tackled in Egor local government area, so as to enable
early mothers and fathers as well as sexually active earlyrs who would have
dropped out of school due to early pregnancy to achieve their educational and
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
is designed to achieve the following purpose. To identify and critically
examine various factors that influence and contribute to the high rate of early
pregnancy in Egor Locals government area. To ascertain the adverse
effects of early pregnancy on the earlyrs and their academiuc performance as
well as the local government area under investigation.
ascertain the extent to which broken homes, poverty, and adverse life
circumstances, ignorance of the consequences of sexual activity, sexual abuse
all coercion and the changing attitude towards sex have influenced and
contributed to early pregnancy in Egor Local Government Area under study.
research questions were raised to guide this study. They are as follows:
1.What are the causes of early pregnancy>
2.Do the changing attitude towards sex influence
and contribute to the rate of early pregnancy?
3.Does early pregnancy affect their academic
4.What are the necessary measures that must be
taken to attack, prevent and reduce early pregnancy?
is based on the following assumptions:
pregnancy is an epidemic and involves a number of complex social and emotional
has been an increase in the rate of early pregnancy.
homes, and poverty and adverse life circumstances are not strange factors
influencing and contributing to early pregnancy.
ignorance of the consequences of sexual activity, sexual abuse and coercion as
well as the changing attitudes towards sex can contribute to early pregnancy.
education about responsible sexual behaviour and specific, clear information
about the consequences of sexual intercourse are beautifully not offered in the
home, at school or in community setting.
That it is
possible to prevent and reduce early pregnancy in Egor local government area.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The use of
any research study is to improve the area immediately concerned with the study
and the society at large. The significance of the study can not be
over-emphasized. This study identifies and examines performance in Egor local
government area and it is therefore, hoped that the result of this study would
help to achieve the following.
vital information on the possible causes and adverse effects on early pregnancy
on their academic performance. Such information is very vital in providing
lasting solution to the problems.
parents and earlyr to clearly understand the adverse effects of early pregnancy
with all of its implications.
adequate information to every school in the local government area under study,
concerning the various methods that can be used to avoid or prevent early
pregnancy which could lead to school dropout among the students (especially the
sexually active ones). This will go a long way in enabling the students to
accomplish that educational and career prospects.
Egor local government council (health and education divisions) in identifying
and assessing the various contributing factors and the implications of early
pregnancy in the local government area as well as enabling t hem to develop
strategies for alleviating early pregnancy in the twenty-first (21st) century.
other researchers who may be interested in carrying out further investigation
on this topic.
policy planners and organizers to programmes for children and earlyrs to know
the necessary factors to take into consideration when formulating and
implementation policies and programme designed to sensitize the children and
earlyrs about the implication/complications of early pregnancy. This study will
also assist them in identifying the various models/approaches/strategies that can
be adopted in attacking, reducing and preventing the occurrences of early
would help to stimulate and draw government attention as well as private
agencies, non-government organizations (NGOs), interest towards the issue of
early pregnancy and how it can be tackled, prevented and reduced to a barest
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
of this study is limited to Egor Local Government Area. To this end, interview
and questionnaire will be used to collect information from the general public
in determining the factors responsible for the increase in early pregnancy.
also focus on the implications of early pregnancy on the individuals involved
and their academic performance as well as the society.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
course of this study, a number of terms were employed. Some of the terms will
now be defined for the purpose clarity and understanding. They are as follows:
Pregnancy: the state of being pregnant.
Earlyr: A person who is between 13 and 19 years
pregnancy occurring in women age 19 and/or younger.
Ovum: A female cell of a human being, animal,
or plant that can develop into a young human being or animal or plant when
state of bring fertile, that is the ability to produce offspring or power of
Sexualintercourse: the physical ability of sex, usually describing the act
of a man putting his penis inside a woman Virginia.
practice of preventing a woman from becoming pregnant. It is also the method of
Uterus: the organ in women and female animal in
which babies develop before they are born.
act of ejaculating, the moment when sperm comes out of mans penis.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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