On personal observation the researcher discovered, after hours of
touring the premises of IMT and ESCET respectively, countless notices of room
vacancies at IMT, a few HIV/AIDS and cultism campaign billboards in both
institutions and only ONE inconspicuously painted sign at ESCET which read,
“stop examination malpractices …study hard”. This goes to show how only little
energy has been channeled towards curbing the vice, under study, present in
both institutions of learning.
Examination malpractices in Nigeria have attained a frightening
proportion. It is sophisticated and institutionalized. Unfortunately, it
involves youth between the ages of 18-23 years. Efforts by government
administrations and various stakeholders in the educational sector to avert the
ugly trend have not yielded fruit.
According to Eromosele (2001),
the present trend, examination malpractices will utterly destroy the quality of
education in Nigeria if decisive steps are not taken to avert or checkmate the
Ruwa (1997) traced back examination malpractices to 1914. Its
situation is so embarrassing to the nation that the federal military government
in 1984 promulgated Decree 20 to deal with it. However, this decree was revised
by the Examination Malpractices Act 33 of 1999. Other measures adopted too were
the War Against Indiscipline and Corruption (WAIC) of the Buhari/Idiagbon
regime and MAMSER of Babangida regime. Despite these steps, the evil continues
to eat deep into the system.
Whereas in the past students tend to hide examination malpractice
acts, now they advertise them without any fear or shame. Recently, several
studies suggest that students are turning towards more private values,
primarily towards self-fulfillment in a career. The strong shift towards
ethical and liberal political values appears to have slowed. As a result, the
trends towards increased social liberalism, cultism, de-emphasis on automatic
acceptance of authority, and examination malpractices have continued to rise.
One of the objectives of education in Nigeria is to prepare the
young ones to face future challenges and develop them to meet the nation’s
manpower requirements. Schools need to conduct examinations as a yardstick for
assessment. In the recent past, there has been a renewed effort to wage
war against corruption at international, regional and national
dimensions. Yet the following questions are unanswered: why have youths decided
to join the corruption train? What are the strategies that have been used to
fight this particular corruption? Why are these strategies not winning the war?
What are the options for winning the war? As it is, the war could be lost
forever since universally accepted and time tested strategies are not
effectively or efficiently utilized.
The intent of this study is to extend earlier efforts by examining
the effect of a public service information campaign (also called Public Service
Advertising-PSA) at IMT (Polytechnic) and ESCET (College of Education) on
examination malpractice prevention. The researcher hopes to contribute to the
continuing elucidation of PSAs on students. She is motivated by some of the
same questions and concerns that scholars have pondered on for decades. Thus,
interest in all levels of education has been focused on its impact on student
values and its role in the creation of socially and politically concerned
individuals. Much research has concentrated on changes in attitude and
personality as a result of the educational experience.
Advertising is essentially persuasive communication. Thus, the
goals set for advertising are communication tasks: to reach a defined audience,
to a given extent, and during a given time period. The public move from
unawareness of a policy to awareness and then to knowledge, liking, preference,
conviction and then action. Public service information campaigns are non
partisan and noncommercial. They promote causes, influence behavior and
advertise locally and nationally social betterment. According to Igbuzor
(2005), there are six questions that should test the seriousness of any
anti-corruption crusade. These are: Is it systematic? Is it comprehensive? Is
it consistent? Does it have focus? Is it well-publicized? Does it carry people
Students are generally known with consistent mobility; on foot, by
public transportation or personal vehicles. Thus, outdoor advertising is an
effective way of reaching them. It offers the lowest cost per exposure of any
major advertising medium, and it produces a major impact, because it is usually
big, colourful, brief in content and hard to ignore. It primarily serves as a
reminder medium. It comes in posters (billboards), painted bulletins, signs,
handbills or even transit and shelter advertising.
Youths are one of the nation’s greatest assets. The Nigerian youth
grapples with the problem of corruption ranging from examination malpractices
to fraud. It is incontrovertible that examination malpractice thrives in a
corrupt society which indicates that it is in the psyche of the people.
Theories have maintained that human morality springs from the emotional
disposition that is hardwired in our species. Therefore corruption can only be
Through an effective conscience appeal, this study hopes to
provide the answers to most of the enquiries contained in this segment of the
study and the reason more attention should be concentrated on adopting outdoor
PSA measures as a new strategy towards preventing examination malpractices.
STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
a. The time of PSA placement may not
correspond with ESCET’s academic schedule.
b. The wrong outdoor medium or a poor
presentation of the chosen medium is used.
c. The location of the medium used
is out of place considering students’ mobility.
d. More attention is paid to the campaign
against other societal ills.
e. Difficulty in achieving intended
attitudinal results towards examination malpractice prevention.
These are the problems which motivated the researcher towards
embarking on this study.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF
a. To ensure that more attention and
interest is drawn towards the use of outdoor PSAs.
b. To create a strong conviction in ESCET
and IMT’s students towards shunning all forms of examination malpractices.
c. To determine suitable placement
locations for the medium considering students’ mobility.
d. To ensure that PSA placement timing
synchronizes with that of the institutions’ academic calendar.
All these determine the high degree of effectiveness the campaign
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
In times past decrees have been promulgated, NGOs established,
management policies adopted, even stiff fines have been stipulated, yet the
Consequently, this study offers an easier way of achieving a
gradual positive transition in the lives of the youth as can be observed
through the following beneficiaries:
a. The management of tertiary institutions, which
includes invigilators, examination coordinators, course lecturers etc, is
placed in a better position to produce a greater number of credible graduates.
b. Governmental or non- governmental agencies
responsible for tackling corruption – related issues are given a greater
opportunity at ridding the society off this vice.
c. It could serve as a forum for academic discuss,
equally acting as a reminder, for the benefit of concerned and interested
individuals in the society.
d. Parents and guardians are assured a greater sense
of pride and confidence in the capabilities and achievements of their wards.
e. Finally, all the above would be assured a
more secure future for the country especially if the youth, the root cause,
take into consideration past mistakes and try to make good the present in good
a. To what extent is PSA placement timing
corresponding with IMT and ESCET’s examination schedule?
b. To what extent are positive behavioural results
c. To what extent can suitable placement
locations be determined considering students’ mobility?
d. To what extent is interest geared towards the
e. To what extent is increased interest in the
campaign to contribute to its effectiveness?
PSA placement timing does not correspond with ESCET and IMT’s schedule
placement timing corresponds with ESCET and IMT’s schedule
positive behavioural results are not attainable
positive behavioural results are attainable
c. H0: suitable placement locations cannot be determined
considering students’ mobility.
suitable placement locations can be determined considering students’ mobility.
interest cannot be geared towards the campaign’s medium.
interest can be geared towards the campaign’s medium.
e. H0: increased interest cannot contribute to the
increased interest can contribute to the campaign’s effectiveness.
1.7 CONCEPTUAL AND
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
The researcher used some terms that connote different meanings to
different situations. The terms are hereunder defined to differentiate their
conceptual and operational meanings:
being in force or operation often from a particular point in time
PUBLIC SERVICE ADVERTISEMENTS (PSAs)
advertisements intended to promote an idea in order to influence behavior
forms of cheating in a test of knowledge which directly or indirectly falsifies
the ability of the student.
establishing measures to avoid a situation that could occur
on routine of an institution because of having spent a long time there
as normal because of having existed for so long
brightly coloured or easily noticed
current fashion or mode
winning chess position
control a situation
jargon for enactment of law
study or go through
or modify a law
payment for work
engage in a societal war to achieve an end
linked railroad cars
sequence of events
armed fighting between groups
serious effort to end a societal ill
work which poses as a burden
operations or activities
change to another social group
to move from one place to another in carrying out activities
curt or abrupt in conversation
undeniable or certain
what makes something happen
idea that people work towards achieving
hold something with a hooked device
struggle to deal with a particular situation
HARDWIRED conceptual: directly wired into
human spirit or soul
for appropriate class or course
of positioning an advertisement at a particular location
adopt something so that it fits in with something else
channeled or directed
vigorous and purposeful
active and changing
1.8 ASSUMPTIONS OF
In terms of research, and as a result of the world’s dynamic
nature, this area of study cannot be said to be sufficiently explored. Now, the
researcher concentrates on the aspect of how examination malpractice can be
campaigned against through the effect caused by the use of outdoor PSAs
(especially billboards) in IMT and ESCET students. Future researches could be
conducted on the advancement of the then existing outdoor PSAs.
The world’s technology sector is advancing in leaps and bounds. As
a result, existing PSAs today could tomorrow become modified in terms of its
electronic and portable qualities. This trend could in turn synchronize with
the increased and modified techniques of examination malpractice that could
exist then. This is a real possibility. Even if this study may have succeeded
in leaving a positive impression in the minds of the present day IMT and ESCET
students, future unrepentant youths faced with more rigid anti-examination
malpractice measures may be forced to invent new ways to “survive”
academically. Metaphorically put, adapting to a “na-condition-wey –make
Consequently, these researchers should keep up with the ever
changing trends by studying other Nigerian higher institutions of learning and
comparing them with IMT and ESCET in terms of how well the examination
malpractice scourge is monitored and what measures are adopted to
prevent, manage or eradicate it from the school system.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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