The research work was aimed at examining
teachers perceptions of government take over of schools from voluntary agencies
in Etsako Edo State. Seven worker hypotheses were formulated and tested.
Sixty questionnaires were distributed to a sample of selected teachers who
completed the questionnaires which the researcher there on analyzed by means of
percentages. From the analysis, it was discovered that while government take
over was initially applauded in that is gave equal opportunity and
accessibility to formal education to all, and resulted in the formulation of a
uniform curriculum, the question of teacher welfare employment and conditions
of service still remained largely unresolved, contrastively, moral laxity,
depreciation of standard and quality and the dilapidation of structures and
equipment were the consequences of government control of schools. The study
therefore shows the need for the government to return schools to voluntary
agencies grant aids to the school and ensure that government policies and
guidelines are complied with in the schools through regular inspection to curb
excesses in the areas of admission, teacher’s employment and welfare, and the
course contents of the schools curricular.
Introduction/ background of study
Statement of problems
Purpose of the study
Scope of delimitation of study
Significance of the study
Definition of terms
The need for education
A brief survey of missionary
Activities and their impact on education before the takeover
A review of peoples perceptions of the effect of the take over
Method of study
Design of study
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis
Data analysis: interpretation and findings
Summary, conclusions and recommendations
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Etsako , as
a geopolitical entity comprises three local government areas; Etsako
East, Etsako West and Etsako Central with their headquarters
at Agenebode Auchi and Fugar, respectively. The entire area is occupied by the
Etsako speaking people of Edo State, Nigeria. The three local government
areas are made up of clans consisting of Auchi, Uzairae, South Ibie, Anwai,
Aviele and Jagbe Clans in Etsako west local government area and Avianwu,
south Uneme and Experi clans in Etsako central local government area.
land mass is on the north eastern part of Edo state. Approximately
between latitude 7025 and 6045 east. It shares common boundaries with Akoko
Edo, Owan East and Esan North East local government area in Edo state, Kogi
state to the north and the River Niger across to Idah in Kogi State.
advent of the Europeans in the later part of the 19th century,
there existed a defined informal system of education where vocational, moral
and proper housekeeping ethics were taught. As early as the 19th century, Islam had filtered from
Idah in Bendel state across the River Niger and Okene Via Okpella, into this
area, however, their presence did not subsist as Christianity gained ascending
instead. However, one Islamic sect the Quadirriyya brotherhood, an academic or
scholarly sect of Muslims founded pockets of study centres in areas such as
Auchi, South Ibie, Aviele, Agbede e.t.c.
Quaran was memorized solely for religious purpose. The only landmark
educational institute which still stands as a monumental evidence of Islamic
contribution to formal education in this area is the present Momodu college,
Agbede, then known as Asarudeen college.
Christian missionaries, consisting the Catholics, Methodists and Anglicans, in
tandem with European merchants established a firm foothold in this area. As it
was in other parts of Nigerian evangelism was the sole aim of the missionaries
as commerce was for the merchants. In this dual transaction, the need to
communication barriers necessitated the establishment of schools by the various
missions to teach the three “RS” of the reading, writing and arithmetic. They
aimed at training interpreters and clerks for their different faiths and
administration for economic conveniences.
(1975: 1-3) wrote about the activities of catholic missionaries in Uzairue clan
in Etsako West local government area. According to him, the first missionaries
to set foot on Etsako soil were of French and German origin he noted that
they came into the religion in 1833. their first settlement, according to him
and Asoera, was at Ivianokpodi near Agenebode in Weppa wanno of Etsako
east local government area.
(1976) an eye witness of the early activities of the catholic missionaries in
Etsako asserted that the mission built and maintained elementary schools
and colleges in this area. Eleta (1965:2), also stated that the catholic
mission established and financed three boys secondary schools, namely; St.
Peters college, Agenebode, our lady’s Fatima college in Auchi, and St. Johns
college in Fugar. A girl secondary school St. Angela’s college, Uzairue was
the Methodist and the Anglicans established more elementary schools in ever
accessible village in this region.
advent of formal education in Etsako comprising the present local
government area of Etsako west, Etsako east and Etsako central
in Edo state.
stage, it is pertinent to briefly examine the goals and content of the
educational package of these missionaries or voluntary agencies as they came to
be known. The focus of their curriculum was to train Nigerians as evangelists
or catechist to help in propagating their denominational doctrines.
tandem with the European merchants, the missionaries also aimed at producing
low skilled workers to assist them in their commercial and administrative
activities. The entire educational system was parochial and self serving and so
did not meet the needs of the people. as in Nigeria, between 1842, which marks
the beginning of formal education and 1916 when the first education code was
enacted with a provision for the government grants in aid to voluntary
agencies, there was little or nothing to reflect the needs of the people in
planning and execution of the curriculum in these mission schools; However, by
1925, the Phelps stokes commission, which was set up in 1920 to examine ways of
making education relevant to the aims, aspirations and culture of the people,
cae up with a memorandum of education with the following recommendations.
i.education should be adopted to local conditions.
education should be provided for both boys and girls.
education should be diversified to include technical, grammar, and vocational
make provision for institutes of higher education.
To this end, by 1943, the Elliot and Abby commissions were
inaugurated to fashion a blueprint on higher education in Nigeria.
Inspite of the above attempts, educational activities of the
agencies were still circumscribed and restricted to maintaining private
interests and standards and to serve the whims and caprices of the colonial
masters. Consequently at independence in 1960, the need to draft a more
practical, relevant and cost effective curriculum became imperative. This led
to the conveyance of a curriculum national conference between the 8th and 12th of
September 1969 in Lagos. At the end of the conference, a communiqué christened
“A philosophy of Nigeria education” was issued. To implement the communiqué the
Nigerian education research and development council (NERDC) was set up to
organize seminars and workshops to further deliberate on the recommendation of
the conference. The result of these efforts was the birth of the national
policy on education (NPE) in 1977. this document was reversed twice in 1981 and
1998, respectively. The NPE, thus became the curriculum documents which
encompasses the basic goods for achieving, maintaining and adopting self
reliant and home grown education to both personal and national needs in sharp
contrast to the parochial, religious oriented, colonial tainted, self serving
an fixated curriculum as was been operated by the voluntary agencies spread
across the entity called Nigeria. Little wonder then that prior to the
emergence of the national policy on education in 1977, the federal government
pronounced the take over of schools from voluntary agencies in 1973 and
provided legal security for states to do same. Consequently, the Midwestern
government (later Bendel state and now Edo and Delta states) announced the take
over of both primary and secondary schools owned by voluntary
hypotheses tested in this study are:
takeover of schools brought about equal opportunity and accessibility to formal
education for all children.
take over brought about uniformity in terms of curriculum development and
take over that brought about teachers job satisfaction.
take over brought about the eradication of discrimination in terms of
employment and condition of service.
takeover did not result in moral decadence among students in the schools.
take over did not result in increased and sustained funding of the schools.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
are the contextual meanings of the keywords using in this study.
agencies: they are organized religious and non governmental bodies, which
established and owned in Nigeria.
These refer to the way one observes or view something or an issue. In this
context, it refers to one opinion about the issue of take over of the school
from voluntary agencies.
over: this implies to assume total control of something, in this case, it
refers to the government assumption of the total asserts and liabilities of all
schools belonging to voluntary agencies in Etsako west, East, and central
local government area of Edo state in 1973
it refers to those teachers who were active players in the education system
before and after the take over and the products of the system who later became
an academic brotherhood of Muslims formed by Quadiri. It believes that the best
way to spread Islam is through literacy education.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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