malpractice could in our time, involves students, parents, teachers school
authorities, examination officials and law enforcement agents, all of who
constitute a syndicate that perpetuates the crime. The high incidence of
examination malpractice in our society is embarrassing. Its bizarre dimensions
have probably not been recognized by the authorities. It is an extension of the
problem of indiscipline, which is at the centre of the decline of our
educational system. Infact, no other factors threaten to destroy the
educational system as examination fraud. Many educationists feel that it is one
of the most dangerous potholes on the nations road to educational breakthrough.
of this study was to find out factors promoting examination malpractices among
secondary school students in some schools in Edo State: A case study of Ikpoba
Okha Local Government Area. In carrying out the study a questionnaire was
administered to students. The data collected from students were analyzed and
interpreted from the results of the data that the factors promoting
examinations malpractice is the strong desire to acquire certificate and the
most frequent method used is copying and bringing in of textbooks to
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Limitations of the study
Definitions of terms
Method of data analysis
Analysis and interpretation of data
Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
malpractice, which is a problematic phenomenon in our educational system, is
the improper or illegal practice, immoral conduct according to the Webster’s
comprehensive dictionary. Furthermore, examination malpractice is an illegal
way which a student devices to pass an examination. This could be in form of
bringing in notebooks to examination halls, cheating during examination,
copying from friends, paying another person to help in writing the examination.
Another way is to have foreknowledge of questions before the examination.
examination malpractice could be traced to the colonial days when Nigerian
chronicle newspaper of January 9, 1992 widely reported how the questions of
senior Cambridge local examination leaked. Although examinations are not only
the yardstick for assessing knowledge, it is the major established yardstick
and most practical way of assessment of education and ascertaining competence.
However, the over dependency on certificates either legitimately or
illegitimately in recent times in this country, the incidence of examination
malpractices has witnessed increasing trends and this is invariably due to the
candidates fear of failure, lacks of confidence, inadequate preparations,
laziness and most of the times, inability to apply themselves to the tasks
which they have come to do both in secondary and in the higher institution in
the country. This bad habit has eaten very deep into our own society.
have perfected various forms of cheating in the examination. Some of the
methods used in these malpractices include bringing foreign materials into the
examination halls. These are designed to assist in passing the examination
rather than relying on their own ability. These materials include textbooks;
prepared materials written on the pylons, things and they come in various names
such as hide and seek microchips, magic text etc. other unwholesome happenings
inside and outside the examination halls include stealing of peoples work,
converting or misappropriating the script of other candidates, substitution of
script at the end of the examination papers only to complain later that their
script are missing. There is also collusion between two or more candidates who
usually agree before hand to sit and receive assistance from themselves.
Impersonation is also very, very common in which a student who writes gets paid
or sometimes gets coerced to go and sit for the real candidate in order to pass
the examination on behalf of the other candidate. The continued flowering in
the vice in the nations educational system has cost a debilitating darkness on
the integrity of certificate Nigerians carry’s about, and infact examination
fraud is being touted as the root cause of all other societal ills like 419 and
other financial crimes in Nigeria. Although government over the years has given
the impression that it lacks the will to implement the exam malpractice law No.
33 of 1999 which stipulates imprisonment of culprits. Our problem in the
country is not restricted to 419; it is not restricted to financial crimes or
bank fraud. If we want to tackle these problems from the roots, we need to go
the examination malpractice.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The act of
cheating during examination has taken on the garb of an organized business
venture, spinning millions of Naira yearly to the practitioners. The present
situation forms one of the reasons why the quality and standard of education in
Nigeria has fallen drastically some say beyond redemption. Besides those who
are not measuring up academically posses the notion of cheat during examination
in order to obtain there certificate by all means. These tendencies lead to
examination malpractice. There is one danger that is peculiar with almost every
student in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State nowadays; it is the
problem of leakage of examination questions papers, which sometimes come
through teachers, invigilators, and principals in order to obtain information
about examinations. The problem is as a result of poverty or inadequate
remuneration. Students collect large amount of money and give it to the
examination officers so that examination papers can be leaked. Mass cheating is
another dimension that examination malpractice has assumed. Nowadays, the whole
thing has become much more sophisticated with the use of electronically
assisted materials, calculators, palm tops (which are mini computers) are
brought in unnoticed, organizers, small sized compact discs, mobile phones,
though not allowed in examination hall, are smuggled in because messages could
be text to them in the hall.
of this project is to investigate the factors promoting examination malpractice
and suggest possible ways and means of eradicating the practices in schools.
Until we are able to stop examination malpractice, the standard of education will
continue to fall. Also if examination malpractice is not properly taken care
of, the society is on its way to hell. Examination malpractice leads to
perpetual condemnation of one’s conscience whereby the carrier of the fake
certificate is constantly under the persecution of carrying something that is
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
of this study is to:
1.To investigate the major factors promoting
2.To examine the people involved in examination
3.To find out the effect of examination
malpractice on the students, teachers and the society in general.
4.To examine the measurement of recall or
recognition of information and also to measure higher order outcomes defined in
terms of more complex cognitive processes (e.g. understanding, synthesis,
5.To suggest possible solutions to the problem of
6.To find out the measures taken by the government
to control examination malpractice.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
will help to shift emphasis from paper qualification to job experience by
policy makers. It will also help the curriculum planners in Nigeria to protect
the integrity of examinations. It will provide Ikpoba Okha local government
area, school of sciences particularly college of Education, Ekiadolor Benin
City and the Edo State Ministry of Information on antics students employ while
perpetrating examination malpractice. It will also be helpful to examination
bodies like West Africa Examination Council (WAEC), National Examination
Council (NECO) and Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) to be aware
of examination malpractices and how it can be eliminated.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
is mainly concerned with the causes of examination malpractice in Ikpoba Okha
Local Government Area of Edo State. It covers the following schools, Western
Boys High School, Army Day Secondary School, queen Ede College and Excel Secondary
School. It includes one hundred students drawn fro each schools highlighted
above. There are two single and two mixed schools.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
of the things that cause or influence something, it could be
environmental/economical factors. It can also be such as the amount by which
something increases or decreases.
Lack of success in doing or achieving something.
Fail: Not to succeed in something, especially examination.
thing that is difficult to deal with or understand.
help the progress of something.
formal test of somebody’s knowledge or ability in a particular subject,
especially by means of written questions or practical exercises.
look to something/somebody carefully and in detail in order to learn something
about it or from it/them, to inspect something or somebody closely. To test the
knowledge or ability of somebody especially by asking questions or setting them
Careless, illegal or unacceptable behaviours by somebody in a professional or
discover and examine all the facts about something, e.g. a crime or an accident
in order to obtain the truth. To try to discover facts, information etc. e.g.
by study or research.
be present during an examination to make sure that it is properly conducted and
that no one cheats.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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