This research was aimed at
investigating the incidence of drugs abuse among secondary school students in
Esan Central LGA of Edo State the findings of the research were based on the
effect of drugs, reasons for drugs abuse, how these drugs are gotten, the
students that abuse it more and the commonly abused drugs secondary school
students randomly chosen, drawn from 10 secondary school four boys schools two
girls and mixed schools.findings show that alcohol, Indian hemp, LSD
Amphatanin, Chinese capsule are the drugs commonly abused the investigation
also show that the drugs have effect on the abusers such lack of sleep,
restlessness, hyper-activity of the muscle and lack of self control. The abuse
of drugs was also found to be more prevalent among males students than female
students. And that most of the drugs gotten through illegal means. The findings
also indicated that the reasons why the respondents abuse drugs are as a desire
to win during competition, because it aid movement of the muscle, reduce
fatigue, ease tension and as an act of curiosity to know its effect. Solutions
to the problem includes government taking action against drug abusers, the
provision of counselling services to school and the imposition of some level of
restriction to the production of these drugs. And also, the mass media should
mount heavy campaign against drug abuse and wining should not be much
emphasized in secondary school.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Origin of drugs use and abuse
Drugs commonly abused
Prevention of drug abuse
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Delimitation of the study
Definition of terms
Drugs abuse in sport
Reasons for drugs abuse
Incidence of student’s
dependence enhancing drugs in sport effect of drugs abuse and risk to students
Reduces to the problem of drug
The study population
The research instrument
The administration of
Analysis of data
Analysis and interpretation of
Discussion of findings
Summary, recommendation and
Suggestion for further studies
In recent times, the incidence
of drug abuse is on the increase and experts in the area of drugs and health
have indicated that if the trend of drug abuse is not controlled, the problems
might aggregate into serious health problem. One sad aspect of this is that
teenagers and children of school age are worst involved with this problem.
To say the least, the
phenomenon of drug abuse is what individuals; government and society are
generally interested in.
A drug is any substance that
modifies body functions when taken into the organism.
A drug is a substance used for
medical purposes, either alone or in mixture substance that changes the state
of function of cells, organs or organism. Drugs are mood modifies which change
the mood of individual per time. Drug abuse can be defined variously depending
on the standpoint of the individual.
It could be seen as constant
and indiscriminate use of both prescribed and legal and illegal drugs or the
use of drugs without diagnosis and prescription, to an extent that it hinders
ones health. Our health-oriented definition of drugs abuse is the self
administration of a quantity or a pattern that impairs an individuals health or
social or economic functioning.
Drug use and abuse or misuse is
phenomenon, which has bothered, is bothering and will continue to bother
mankind even in generation to come. Governments, religious organization, social
groups, world bodies and concerned individuals in the world over are alarmed
and indiscriminate and went on use and abuse of drugs and the implication to
the individual health status. Drugs abuse world wind is said to have become a
major social problems, which affect individuals at every socio-economic level
as well as individuals in age group from the adolescent to the elderly.
For instance, Caliendo (1996)
reports; an estimated 9.3-10.3 million U.S adults or 7% of the U.S. adult
population are alcoholics or problems drinkers among teens and youth age 14-17
years old, this represents 19% of American youths.
The rate of alcoholic
consumption is alarming.
Caliendo (1976) look at that;
it has been estimated based on data obtained from USDH. Food balance sheet,
that the average annual consumption of obsolete alcohol from beer, wine and
spirit among the drinking age America public 2.6 gallons per individual. The
caloric value of this quantity of alcohol is approximately 210 calories daily
per son. The rate of alcohol consumption varies among individuals.
Many people do not consume any
alcohol whereas many consume alcohol far in excess of the average. It is
estimated, however that on the average, adult females in the United States
derives to 10% of their RDA calories from alcohol whereas males obtain 7.5%.
This trend is similar globally.
OF DRUG USE AND ABUSE
The African society is a drug
using one. We take in drugs daily as we eat food in form of herds, stems,
roots, crops and cereal beverages. Ideally, we use drugs either in these
aforementioned forms, or in refined forms for both preventive and curative
For certain ailments and
diseases. In traditional African society which dates back even before recorded
history, drugs are used daily for difference cultural and religious purpose of
birth, death, marriage, and divorce rites.
Others are initiations into
difference groups, appeasement of the gods. In concluding agreements for buying
and selling of lands and landed property, apprenticeship agreements for
teaching and learning of crafts and so on. Therefore, the use of drugs, in
different forms and for different purpose permeates every facet of our
traditional society and culture. Most of these drugs in their unrefined forms
grow widely in our environment and hence there easy availability to the users.
One can therefore say without fear of contradiction that the history of drugs
abuse and misuse is as old as society itself or man.
The arrival of the ‘white men’
on the shores of African continent added yet more damaging drugs to the ones we
already had and to that extent made the environment for drugs use and abuse
friendly by easy availability and preference.
OF DRUGS USE AND ABUSE
According to Agwubike (1998)
drugs are known to be chemical agents that affect living cells they are used in
modern medicine, in the treatment of illness and disease.
Drug abuse has severe health
implication. The incidence and severity of problems associated with the
non-medical use of the drugs is incalculable. Alcoholism for instance is one of
the most common types of under-nutrition in the adult. Excessive alcohol
consumption is the primary factors related to the development of cirrhosis of
the lever which according to Caliendo (1966), the ninth leading killer disease
of the United States population.
Villabi et al (1991) report;
Spain ranks second to France in international comparison of alcohol
consumption, 52% of adults drinks daily, and mortality due to liver cirrhosis
ranks as the sixth causes of death both in terms of death rates and potential
years of life lost.
In addition to the liver
problem and the nutritional, Caliendo (1976) has this to say, “Alcohol related
deaths may reach as many as 205, 000 annually in the U.S. It has also been
known to cause several health problem like congestion heart failure, high blood
pressure, lose of appetite, inflammation of the stomach/pancreas, intestines
which leads to nutrient matabsorption.
Another severe consequence of
alcoholism worthy of mention is the effect it has on the offspring of a
pregnant drinker. It is said in Britain alone that more than 44% of children
born to alcoholic mothers had 10 below 80, as well as significantly higher
rates of hearty and joint abnormalities.
Economically, it cost the
government billions of petro-dollar if quantified in terms of man-hour lost as
a result of drug associated problems. This affects our out-put by reducing
According to Caliendo (1976), …
alcohol abuse in the United State cost almost $43 billion in 1975.
According to Agwubike (1998), a
drug has damaging consequences to the body organ and systems e.g. some drugs
damage the liver, kidney or adversely affect the central nervous system. In
certain instances death may result. It also state ion his book that users of
drugs spend a lot money in producing drugs to themselves.
According to Agwubike 91998)
drugs commonly abused by secondary school students are;
Caffeine and others like alcoholic content etc. which have excitatory or
inhibitory effect which are thought to enhance performance in sport by delaying
the onset of fatigue or hasten recovery rate.
CONTROL OF DRUG ABUSE
In view of the adverse effect
of drug abuse on the private and public health of the society, there is need to
prevent and control the abuse of drugs. In order to achieve this, there should
be both concerted and simultaneous efforts by government, religious and other
There has to be drug education
This education should be
directed at the drugs using population especially adolescents in both secondary
and tertiary institutions. The objectives should be to made available to them
useful information on short term effect of drug use and abuse especially
dependence producing drugs. This is necessary because most of the drug users do
so because of ignorance of the area of using the mass media, school and other
educational means for it to spread drug education. There should also be drug
adult education to educate parents who will in turn continue to teach their
wards at home the need to avoid drug abuse or the correct use of drugs.
World Health Organization (WHO)
through its appropriate agencies should step up action both in term of
education and in releasing funds for rehabilitation and various activities that
will discourage drug use and misuse.
What are the factors responsible for drug abuse?
What category of secondary school students abuse drug more?
What are the types of drugs abused?
iv. What are the effect of drug abuse?
PURPOSE OF STUDY
This research was carried out
with a view;
To identifying the types of drugs that are commonly abuse by secondary school
To point out conditions under which secondary school students take drugs
To highlight the reasons why secondary schools students indulge in the abuse of
To educate secondary school students activities towards drugs involvement
To suggest and recommend ways by which the problems of drugs abuses can be
controlled among secondary school students
OF THE STUDY
Indiscipline among secondary school students in most cases has been blamed on
The climate during competition game situation will undoubtedly be improved when
secondary students are intimated with the implications of drug involvement.
It will enable the school
authorities and sport organization to plan programme to suit secondary school
students from various background.
It will reduce indiscipline
among secondary school students and abuse of drugs.
Deviancy as well as
delinquencies amongst minimum in school and society at large.
It will create a way to guide
them to a meaningful life or drug free live.
This study will serve as a base
for more research work on drug abuse among secondary school students.
Drug: Any substance that when
taken into the living organism, may modify one or more of its functions.
Drug dependence: A state,
psychic and some time also physical, resulting from the interaction between a
living organism and a drug characterized by behavioral and other responses that
always include a compulsion to take the drug on a continuous or periodic basic
in order to experience its psychic effects and sometimes to avoid this
discomfort of its absence.
A drug having the capacity to interact with a living organism to produce a
psychic or physical dependence or both.
USE OF DRUGS
The uses of dependence producing drugs other than when medically indicated.
Drug abuse: Is the constant and
indiscriminately use of both prescribed and non-prescribed legal drugs or to
the extent that it hinders.
Legal drugs: These are drugs
statutorily allowed for use by law of the land.
Illegal drugs: Are drugs
approved by a quantified physician for use by the patient.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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