The purpose of this study is to
investigate the influence of peer group on adolescent and their academic
performance. Descriptive research methodology was used. Random sampling
techniques was also adopted to select about one hundred in schools adolescents
from four secondary schools in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State.
Questionnaires were developed to collect data. The data collected was analyzed
using the t-test and parson. The findings of this study revealed that peer
group could either positively or negatively influence the academic performance
of in school adolescents. This research recommends that parents and teachers
should provides adequate guidance to adolescents to help them understand how
the friends they keep can either positively or negatively influence their
academic performance in school.
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Limitation of the study
Definition of terms
Review of related literature
Research design and methodology
Population of the study
Instrument for data collection
Method of data analysis
Data presentation and interpretation of data analysis
Summary, recommendations and conclusion
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The educational foundation of a child starts right from the home. It starts
with informal education which being with the parents when the child is of age
he will be sent to school for final education. At school the child is exposes
to so mine people like the teacher, classmates and health of school. All these
people associated with the education of the child certainly influence the
students greatly. The academic performance of the child are greatly influence
by the students who are mostly his classmates and peer group because he spend
most of his time with them. The peer group is therefore the first social group
outside the home in which the child attempt to gain acceptance. Each peer group
has its code of conduct which does not always confirm with advance standard.
The peer group becomes an agency of enculturation and learning. Even very young
children develop a sense of self from their perception of important people in
their surroundings including relatives, teachers and peer socio-economics status,
ethnicity and parents occupation affects how families view themselves and the
process by which they socialize their children (Bornstein, 2002). Later as
children leave their home setting their self perception and socializing skills
become influenced by how their peers view them. When children move out from
family to child care centers, school and the community at large they begin to
form attachments and friendships emerge through their play. These relationship
influence behaviours. Even infants and toddlers are observed reacting to other
infants by touching them, by crying when others cry and later by offering
nurturance or comfort. At about age three, early friendship begins to have a
more lasting influence (Parke, 1990) peer influence on behaviour gradually
becomes more dominant.
Smart and Smart (2000) defines peers as equal or in the usual meaning as friend
of about the same class members of the same society such as the boys scout,
girls, guide, chorister, football team, social clubs can form peer group. The
peer group influence on students academic performance depends greatly on the
skills and potential of the students. Derville, B. (2001) observed that as a
child grows up his own peer group of companion are likely to become of greater
importance to him than his parents and teachers. Harris (1998, 2002) and Rowe
(1994) maintained that peer groups have an even stronger influence than that of
parents, although that extreme position has been refuted by other researchers
Gradually, children discover that others can share their feelings or attitudes
or have guilt different ones. The perspective of others will affect ho children
feel about their own families. Children usually have a family view of their own
and of other cultures. So when confronted with other perspectives, they often
need to re think their own view points. It is often difficult for chuckler to
adjust to the idea that other families can function radically differently from
their own and yet hold many of the same attitudes and beliefs and be equally
nurturing and secure. The peer group serves as a barometer for children
examining themselves and their feelings about self and family. The peer group
also influence development of children’s socializing skills. These early
friendship help children learn how to negotiate and relate to other including
their siblings and other family members. They learn from peer on how to
cooperate and socialize according to group norms and group- sanctioned modes of
behaviour. The peer group can influence what the child values, know, wear eats
The extent of this influence, however, depends on other situational
constraints, such as the age and personality of children of the group (Harris,
1998, Hartyp, 1983). In its most acceptance form, the peer groups is healthy
coming of age arbiter, by which children grasps negotiating skills and learn to
deal with hostility and to solve problems in a social context. In its most
destructive mode, the peer group can demand blind obedience to a group norm,
which can result in socially alienated gangs with pathological outlooks (Peer,
1987). Despite so much change in today’s society, the fundamental tasks of
growing up still endure to find a place in a sense of belonging, to identify
and master tasks that are generally recognized as having values and therefore
can earn respect by acquiring skills to cope with them to acquire a sense of
worth as a person, and to develop reliable and predictable relationship with
other people especially a few close friends and loved ones. Conceptualization
of the term students is derived from Latin word “stud” which means growing up.
It is a period of transaction in which the individual transforms from childhood
Wentzel (1989) and Lingrett (1995) found out that as children grow and move to
adulthood, involvement with and influence of peer identification increase as
modeling value of the family decreases. In most cases, peer tends to replace
the modeling value of the family context during early childhood. As a result of
the social acknowledgement that students look for, they are under certain among
of pressure that drives them to abide by the peer convictions or rejections.
The way social interaction affect academic achievement of students is important
for parents, educators, and policy makers. The peer group’s influence on a
students especially during adolescents and early adult hood is a powerful force
for both pre-social and anti-social development. Academic performance has also
been a subject of intense study. Caltern (1998) came up with the findings that
strong relationship does exist between school adjustment behaviour and peer
acceptance. It was also found out that strong and quality peer associations are
related to poor or good academic performance and successful school transition.
Peer influence is one of the most frequently referred to forms of negative peer
influence. It is particularly common because students are forced to spend large
amount of time in fixed groups (school and sub groups within them) regardless
to their opinion of these groups. In addition to this, they lack the maturity
to handle it. Also students naturally wish to behave negatively towards those
who are not members of their peer groups. However, students can also have
positive effect for example if one is involved with a group of people that are
ambitious and working to succeed one might feel pressured to follow suit to
avoid feeling excluded from the group.
Positive peer influence on academic performance depends on the students self
identity, self esteem and self reliance. Peer influence can mobilize student’s
energy and motivate for success. Peer can and do act as positive role models.
Negative behaviour that his or her value might otherwise reject. If a student
is influence negatively from peer it affects their academic performance.
Stronger student do have an impact on their peers and actually help improve the
over all academic performance, for example, if student are friends to secondary
school dropout, they have tendency to be absent from school, have lower grade
and less positive attitudes towards school, they are less popular and less
likely to plan to attend higher institutions. If dropout maintains contact with
friends who have stayed in schools, however, these friends may provide moral
support for returning to school. Attitude and aspiration of peers as well as
peer expectations and standards affect individual’s efforts and achievement in
school for many secondary school students, achieving in school is in direct
conflict with peer acceptance.
However, it is through the peer group that students are most likely to be
introduced to problem behaviour such as drinking, smoking, diligence and low
academic performance. Positive peer influence generates more alternative
solution to problem, proposed more mature solution and are less aggressive than
students who are influenced negatively. Students are attracted to join peer
groups because such groups provide them with sources of information needed to
be empowered academically, vocationally, psychologically or otherwise and give
the feedback about the appropriateness of their emotions especially when
students are highly stressed or under stressed (Schachter, 1989).
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The influences that peer group have on ones academic achievement is enormous.
The ways and manners by which peer influence affects students academic
performance needs to be researched and documented. This will assist parents and
counsellors to understand the pattern of peer influence and ways to curb
1.Bad teaching methods on the part of the teacher
could be encouraged by negative activities in the peer group.
2.Lack of school materials can make the children
to be indolent at school work which could help to encourage negative activities
in the peer group and this help to lower academic performance.
3.Indiscipline in schools could encourage negative
activities among members of a peer group and this can lower academic
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study or research work is to achieve the following
objectives on the academic performance of students on secondary school in Egor
Local government Area of Edo State.
1.examine the concept and nature of peer group
2.discuss the challenges associated with students
3.analyze means by which peer group influence in
4.discuss the effects of peer group influence on
academic performance of students.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study is important for several reasons. Firstly, the study will give the
researcher an in-depth insight into how the activities of the peer group really
influence. Secondly, the researcher will also create a source of awareness for
teacher and parents that uncontrolled negativities among peer groups to which
their children belong can lower or increase the academic performance.
Lastly, the study will help to highlight area where peer groups activities
could have negative effect on the part of the school children so that they
could be checked by the parents and teachers.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work focuses on the influence of peer group on student’s academic
performance. This research work covers four selected secondary schools in Egor
Local Government Area of Edo State.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
For the purpose of clarification, the following terms which are used in the
content of study are hereby defined.
1.Peer group. This refers to children or
adolescents who are of the same age or maturity, level and have regular contact
with each other.
2.Peer group. Peer influence can be described as
the pressure adolescents feel from their peers.
3.Academic performance. This has to do with
children programmes at school work in the area of ability to read and write,
ability to speak good English, to solve problems in mathematics and ability to
use their initiated under any circumstances.
4.Adolescent. This refers to the transitory period
where a child moves to adulthood. The adolescent years fall with 12-18 years.
5.Social time. This has to do with discipline and
good responses to academic work by both teachers and students alike. The
ability to submit willingly to constituted, where this exist, there is adequate
room for academic achievement.
6.In- school adolescent. This refers to the
adolescents who are still in the formal school system as opposed to those who
have dropped out of school.
7.Social status. This has to do with the academic
and home background of the parents of the children who are subject of this
research. It is observed that children from higher social background usually perform
better to some extent in academic work than those from the lower social
background in the area of ability to speak simple and correct English and to
8.Truancy. It is unjustified absence from school
on a child’s own initiat5ive without the permission of parents or school. a
truant is any child that is irregular at school for he finds other places more
attractive than school work, and all it stands for. He may be an individual who
just does not want to go to school and makes plan to do some other things else.
He wanders away from these difficulties and in at least held the drift into
Truancy is a series of sociological problem which can lead to
juvenile delinquency and ultimately to crime. The pupils who play truant are
generally difficulties in anxious and highly sensitive in class and have
difficulties in their dealing with other people there.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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