This study was conducted to investigate
the importance of instructional materials in the teaching of Social Studies in
secondary schools in Edo State. During the study, data were collected by means
of questionnaire and it was detected that the place of instructional materials
is very important in the teaching of Social Studies in secondary schools. The
researcher thereby stressed that instructional materials is very important and
therefore should be in any school setting. Furthermore she also stressed that instructional
materials will increase the interest of the students in learning, a development
that will enable the child to become a useful person to the society. In
conclusion, it was recommended that instructional materials should be used in
every school in Edo State for effective teaching and learning process to tale
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is well
known among educators that, the educational experiences involving the learner
actively participating in concrete examples are retained longer than abstract
experiences. Instructional materials add elements of reality by providing
concrete examples to learning. Many authors have written on the use of
instructional materials both in teaching Social Studies and other related
subjects in order to enhance teaching for desired social and behavioural
change. These authors include; Mcluhan (1964), Alaka (1978), Kochar (1986),
Okafor (1988), Mkpa (1989), UNDP (1998), Heeks (1999), World Bank (1999),
Aguokogbuo (2000), Koert (2000), Greenwood (2001), Bozimo (2002),
Nwanna-Nzewunwa (2003) and Adekeye (2008). More specially, it was emphasized in
the work of these authors that the use of instructional materials is a sine qua
non in affecting behaviour of learners of every field, especially social
studies. It was equally shown by some of the authors that these materials are
important catalysts of social re-engineering and change. It is obvious that
social studies teaching and learning cannot be well accomplished without the
use of instructional materials.
reason is not far fetched. Advances in technology have brought instructional
materials especially the projected and electronic materials to the forefront as
the most radical tools of globalization and social development which have
affected the classroom teaching learning situation positively. Such technology
or technological breakthroughs as networked and non networked projected and non
projected, visual, auditory, audio-visual electronic materials are important
landmarks in knowledge transfer. With them both teaching and learning become
very pleasant experiences.
Instructional materials possess some inherent advantages that make them unique
in social studies teaching. For one thing, they provide the teacher with
interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they
motivate learners to want to learn more and more. Also, by providing
opportunities for private study and references, the learners’ interest and
curiosity are increasingly stimulated. Further, the teacher is assisted in over
coming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective
presentation of a given topic. They generally make teaching and learning easier
and less stressful. They are equally indispensable catalysts of social and
intellectual development of the learners.
(2003) pointed to a good relationship between the teachings of the social
studies and using of instructional materials. He argued that while some
educators have been fascinated by the potential of instructional materials to
enhance teaching and learning teachers’ lagged behind in using instructional
materials during teaching and learning. Others expressed doubts that
instructional materials will ever incite teaching reform in social studies.
Instructional materials are integral components of teaching learning situation.
It is not just to supplement learning but to complement its process.
Instructional materials are made up of objects such as printed materials,
audio, visual that aid in the successful delivery of social studies lesson
(Chuba 2000: 101). To this end, instructional materials are said to be objects
or things the teacher can use in the classroom while teaching in order to ease
off his teaching activities. However, instructional materials cannot address
all the teaching learning problem but it can go a long way in solving them,
simply because they are additional apparatus that can influence the reality of
teaching and learning activities.
85) explained that, the concept of teaching aids has gone through several
evolutionary stage from the simple aids, instructional technology, media to
communication and educational technology. This however, tells us that
instructional materials are not just objects or equipments used during teaching
learning process but there those objects improvised by the teacher to make
conceptual abstraction more concrete and practical to the learners.
Instructional materials are the relevant materials utilized by a teacher during
social studies instructional process for the purpose of making the contents of
the instructions more practical and less vague. Instructional materials are
indispensable factors of in any teaching learning process. Ordinary words or
verbalization has been found to be inadequate for effective teaching.
Instructional materials serve as a channel through which message, information,
ideas and knowledge are disseminated more easily. They can therefore be
manipulated, seen, heard, feet or talked about. They facilitate activities.
They are anything or anybody the teacher turns to for help in his learning
process (ESU & Umoren 1998).
Instructional materials group the learners’ intellect and eliminated boredom.
Some of the unique qualities of instructional materials is speedy learning and
accuracy. They make the work easier, more appeal, accurate, neater and boosting
for clarity of social studies concept. If social studies is to be learned
effectively, it must be experienced. Social studies is so close to the life of
every child that no teacher needs ever be without instructional materials for
teaching of social studies. One of the biggest draw backs in the use of
instructional materials is inadequate supply of instructional materials.
social studies in respect to its scope and nature, which is multidimensional,
integrative and dynamic, cannot effectively take effects without the use of
instructional materials, the teaching of social studies contents must focus not
only on making teachers competent at using instructional materials, but at the
same time, promote strategies that enables the integration of instructional
materials that enhances teaching and learning of social studies goals and
Instructional materials as an act of giving help normally by teachers to
provide help and encouragement in students or pupils learning activities. They
further described instructional materials as a tool, which can easily be used
by a teacher to correct wrong impressions and to illustrate things that
learners cannot forget. The major aim of using instructional materials in
social studies instructional is to achieve excellent result.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The use of
instructional materials in social studies instructions has been widely
researched but many questions are still remains unanswered. The need for
exploring locally available materials in our schools, resourcefulness of the
teacher must be in line with the learners’ curriculum and environment so that
classroom teaching does have to be retarded by lack of funds. The problems are
that; instructional materials not available in our schools, teachers are not
improvising and reluctant in using them.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
of this study is to determine the use of instructional materials in social
studies teaching. The specific objectives of the study are:
1.To identify the place of instructional materials
in social studies instruction.
2.To find out how adequate the instructional
materials available, types and selected suit the teaching of social studies
3.To identify the problems associated with the use
of instructional materials.
4.To determine the teachers’ knowledge, competency,
in the selection of instructional materials and reasons why they do not utilize
the instructional materials.
5.To find out how often social studies teachers
utilize instructional materials in the course of social studies instruction.
following questions were asked and answered in the study;
1.How frequently do social studies teachers
utilize instructional materials during social studies lesson?
2.What are the problems associated with the use of
instructional materials in social studies instruction?
3.What are the reasons why the teachers do not use
4.What are the benefits of instructional materials
to the students?
5.What are the suggested solutions to the problems?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
obvious that, instructional materials cut across all the spheres of teaching.
The findings of the study have some implications for all the processes of
acquiring knowledge as it will give insight into the importance and procedures
for selecting and use of instructional materials in the teaching learning
process of any subject at all.
integrity of teaching and learning would be rekindled as meaningful learning
will be achieved as prospective teachers both in the field of social studies
and any other discipline would also have a strong background as how to
manipulate and integrate instructional materials with teaching. This will help
in showing the effectiveness and the usefulness of instructional materials for
teaching social studies to the teachers and all other classroom teachingand learning activities. It would
help the educational supervisors on the basic instructional equipments to be
provided for social studies teaching whenever inspection is carried out.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Instructional materials: these
are objects utilized by the teacher to complete teaching and learning process.
of promoting or improving teaching and learning.
use of instructional materials.
are basic equipments use for the purpose of learning activities.
are teaching aids which appeal to the sense of hearing.
Audio visual: these
are instructional materials that can be used to aid teaching and learning via
the senses of sight and of hearing at the same time.
are instructional materials which appeal to the sense of sight.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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