investigates parenting styles and self concept. It was with the view of seeing
how they influence the emotional adjustment of adolescents in Nigeria. It’s
reference is particularly to senior and junior secondary school in Ikpoba Okha
local government area of Edo state. The research question was drawn for three
lasting elated literature, in different parenting styles, self-concept and
emotional adjustment, were reviewed. The respondents were senior and junior
secondary school students. The sample and sampling techniques was used in six
secondary school. One hundred and eighty boys and girls responded to the
questionnaires on the instrument for investigation. The study questionnaire was
on parenting styles scale, self-concept scale and emotional adjustment scale.
Pilot study of the questionnaire was carried out to ascertain the content, the
percentage of analyzing the result were used to show the content, the
percentage of analyzing the result were used to show the emotional adjustment
and the influence parenting styles has on the self-concept of the adolescent.
The study therefore recommend that parents should ensure that, the parenting
style used on adolescent should be such that will help develop the positive
emotional adjustment and the school counselor to initiate programme that will
help adolescent have positive self-concept.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of study
Scope of study
Significance of the study
Definition of terms
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
is a developmental period when a lot of change takes place, these changes could
be physical, mental and social. Also adolescent is usually a time of excitement
and of troubles and can thus be a confusing time. It is true that adolescents
have different self-esteem, and the way they react to situation and
circumstances surrounding them. While some are very receptive and others very
aggressive and unfriendly.
It has been
noticed that some of these adolescents are maladjusted in behaviour and in
their relationship with fellow adolescent and other members of the society.
Some of these adolescent who have problem with their self-concepts are not able
to adjust or cope emotionally. It is in recognition of this, that the national
policy of education stated. In view of the apparent ignorance of many young
people, about career prospects and in view of personality, maladjustment among
school children, career offices and counselors should be appointed in post primary
institution. As one of the function of guidance and counselling, in assisting
training given to a child, to a large extent determine his or her self-concept.
The parenting styles of individual also determine how the child will adjust to
the society emotionally. There are different families. There is the single
parent homes, the two parents homes and the multiple parents homes which is
generally known as polygamy. In these homes you find different styles of
parenting being used. These parenting style have a way of affecting the
self-concept of individual adolescents and their emotional adjustment in the
parenting styles, goes a long way in determining how an individual sees his or
herself, perception concerning his or her physical, social and psychological
aspiration and emotional adjustment in the society in which he or she lives. It
is therefore important to study the different parenting styles and ascertain
how they determine the self-concept of the individual adolescent. It is also
necessary to look at the way, this will help the individual to adjust
emotionally to the society.
WHAT THEN IS PARENTING
to Cleaner Casiellino, Michinery and Terry Vilarcial  parenting is the term
summarizing set of behaviors involved across life, in the reactions among
organisms that are usually the same and typically members of different but
cohorts. Parenting interaction provide resources across the generational groups
and functions in regard to domains individual survival reproduction, nature and
socialization, this parenting is a complex process involving much more than a
mother or father providing food and succor to an infant or child. Parenting
involves bio-directional relationship between members of two or more generation
and can extend through all major parts of the respective life spans of these
groups which may engage all institution within a culture including education,
economic, political and designed settings which the group left behind [Ford and
Leaner Lager] “parenting is both a biological and social process.
to Bornstain , the key functions of a child’s family are to raise the
young person in a healthy as manner as possible. The parents role is to provide
the child with safe, secure, nurturing, loving as well support the child’s
environment, as one that allows the offspring to have a happy and healthy youth
life. This sort of experience allows the youth to develop in knowledge, value,
attitude and behaviour necessary to become an adult, making a productive
contribution to self, family community and the larger society.
parent does to fulfill these “duties” or roles is termed parenting in other
words, parenting is a term summarizes behaviour of a person, usually mother or
father in the process of raising a child given to the family.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
to Darling  Development psychologists have interest in the way parent’s
influences social and instrumental competence. It has also been said that
parenting is the most difficult job, and the most important responsibility one
will have in life.
to Kathic  on clear guidelines above, the way of parenting has been based
on, upbringing of children in appropriate building of positive self-concept
without having emotional problems.
to Darling  parenting is a difficult task that include a lot of specific
behaviour that work individually and collectively to influence adolescent life.
to Fry , many parents believe that the best way to bring up and rear a
child especially the adolescent is by being oppressive, a commander, an
authoritarian and autocratic. These parents believe that the adolescent should
carry out all instructions as commanded, yet another set believe that they
should be permissive or negligent as parents could such parenting style result
in maladjustment? Nigerian adolescent with low self-concept and emotional
problem, parents who are authoritative in their parenting styles have children
who are more socially, emotionally and instrumentally competent than others who
to Baumrind , the authoritarian families have adolescent who perform well
in school, but involved in problem behaviour, self-esteem and high level of
to Schwarz  and Darling , various researchers have low self esteem
and low self-concept result from authoritarian family, the reluctant once
perform poorly in school, and low level of depression. Which of these styles is
known to have positive emotional developments? Could this be equally true of
the respondents in this study? Or can the four parenting styles be merged to
eliminate maladjustment in adolescent? Can two or three parenting styles be
adopted for a balance adolescent life?
to National Policy on Education , one of the aims and objectives of the
national policy on education, which is also linked to the training of the mind
and the understanding of the world. It states also that, it is promotion of the
physical and psychological development of all Nigerian children.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this research is:
1a. Parenting style of indulgent
c.Authoritative parents and
d.Uninvolved parents [reluctant]
All this will be done through study materials and field work with
2. How parenting styles affect the
self-concept of the adolescent
3. And how parenting style and
self-concept affect the emotional adjustment of the adolescent.
To find out
the effects of parenting styles and self-concept on emotional adjustment of the
adolescent, the study raised the following research questions:
parenting style affect the emotional adjustment of the adolescent?
self-concept affect the emotional adjustment of the adolescent?
self esteem among adolescent create problems of fornication, smoking, cultism
and other vices?
SCOPE OF STUDY
research study will be limited in scope to 10 [ten] randomly selected secondary
school in the Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
analyses adolescent development between parental styles and self-concept on the
emotional adjustment of the adolescent. This study therefore, will add to the
knowledge of parenting styles and self-concept.
will also benefit those who wish to carryout data examination on parenting
styles, self-concept and emotional life of the adolescent. It will also help
parents especially to know the impact they have on their children so as to help
develop programmes that will help build their relationship with their
will also help professional like psychologist and educationist to know that
child rearing is built on social support, behaviour molding and the adolescent
emotions. And also, the process of self-development in adolescent to a large
extent is tailored towards helping parents and counselors to know the different
parenting styles that is positive and negative to the adolescent.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
clear understanding of the concepts used in this study some terms are defined
1.PARENTING STYLE: This is the different styles of
up bringing of children. Here we have
d.Uninvolved [reluctant] parents.
2.SELF-CONCEPT: It is a word, which qualifies an
individual to self-regards.
3.PARENTAL ATTITUDE: This is the parental feeding
towards the adolescent..
4.INDULGENT PARENTS: These are the parents who
feel less concern about their children’s up bringing
5.AUTHORITARIAN PARENTS: They are the parents who
believes in oppressing their children with directive options and not responsive.
6.AUTHORITATIVE PARENTS: They are responsive and
they do not oppress their children directive options.
7.UNINVOLVED PARENTS OR RELUCTANT PARENTS: They
are not responsive, neither are they helpful.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
For more informations on project materials and more