Sexuality and contraception among students continue to be a public
health problem of immediate concern in developed and underdeveloped countries.
While the knowledge of HIV/AIDS as an inevitable disease is high among
Nigerians in general, HIV/AIDS transmission in reduction measures are
inconsistently taken by sexually active individuals. The youths and adolescents
are those that have high risk of being affected with STDS, if contraceptives
are not used correctly or avoided, because the youths are vulnerable to
indiscriminate sexual intercourse, with multiple sex partners.
Heterosexual transmission accounts for as high as 90% of HIV/AIDS
in Sub-Saharan African where about 14 million people were estimated to be
infected with HIV. The federal ministry of Health and Human Services (FMH &
HS 1992) in Nigeria suggested that about one million HIV infected people exist.
This prevalence is increasing due to high risk of sexual behaviours. These STDS
diseases are mostly common among individuals younger than 25 years world wide.
Several educators have shown that young people lack knowledge about prevention
and the use of contraception and often have little or no idea about
reproduction. Pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease among students is very
rampant among undergraduate. Most of these pregnancies are unplanned and
unwanted. They are often terminated illegally by quark doctors in the
dark. About 600,000 clandestine abortions took place in Nigeria in the 1980s
some of which had disastrous consequences for the abortion seekers (African
Journal of Reproductive Health, 2002). In most parts of Nigeria, sexual
abstinence before marriage is expected from unmarried youths. However, studies
show that premarital activity is high among adolescents. Parents, government
and NGOS have expressed serious concerns about adolescents’. Sexual activity
based on the board information that adolescent who engaged in sexual activity
whether orally or otherwise often fail to use contraceptives thus, exposing
themselves to the risk of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted
infections and diseases.
The lower age limit for admission into most Nigeria higher
institutions is 16-18 years. This means that majority of undergraduates are in
their late teens and early twenties. Most of them live away from home, in
school hostels and rented apartments close to their institutions. These
arrangements weakens parental control and supervision of student’s activities.
They are often exposed to influences from friends, which encourage casual
sexual relationship and have to take personal important decisions about their
social and reproductive lives. Unfortunately the use of contraceptives among
Nigeria students is very low due to the fear of side effects and negative
cultural attitudes of parents/guardians to contraceptive use.
Other factors responsible for sexuality among undergraduate are
that sex education is not part of secondary school curriculum in Nigeria and
there are not obvious policies in most Nigeria higher institutions on the
provision of reproductive health services, including contraceptive to the
This study is carried out to determine the sexuality and
contraceptive practices among students as related to their awareness of HIV
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Changes in the social environment coupled with exposure to western
media, appear to have had profound influence on students sexuality in African.
In a country like Nigeria whose students are judge to be among the most
sexually active world wide, the issue of sexuality and contraception can not be
over elaborated. Blane and Laky (1998) opined that youths who are sexually
active often fail to use contraceptive. In a study of adolescents in Edo State
by Peterson and Fakeye (1978), it was found that 13.4% of male had made a
partner pregnant and 69% of these pregnancies had been aborted. Gueye et al
(2001) observed that previously in many African societies, sexual taboos, rites
and cleansing procedures were transmitted in conjunction with formal rituals,
such as circumcision or initiation. Nowadays, the influence of such traditional
structure has weakened, thus, reducing the sources of social support and
resource for youths sexual health problems.
Furthermore, this study of sexuality and contraceptive will invariably
touch upon some socially controversial issues like sexual promiscuity and
homosexuality. According to Cameroon (1989) STDS such as Chlamydia, Gonorrhea,
Syphillis, Cancroids, and Trichomoniasis increases the likelihood of HIV
This research work is a survey of the sexuality and contraception
among students of College of Education, Ekiadolor, Edo State.
1.3PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to investigate sexuality and the use
of contractive among students. It will educate the students on the issues of
sexuality and the use of contraceptive, to prevent the spread of sexually
transmitted diseases among students and to enlighten young undergraduates and
the public in general on the importance and uses of contraceptive. It
will also determine to some extent the usage of contraceptive among students.
1.4SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study seeks to identify the roles of parents in the sexual
and contraceptive behaviour of their children and to awaken the interest of
parents in giving their children sex education at home. It will in no doubt,
promote further research for predicting contraceptive behaviour which will
assist in the development and implementation of effective, preventive and
intervention programmes especially issues concerning sexually transmitted
disease. This will go along way to make profound or useful contribution
to medical issues like family planning, rate of contractions of STD’s, STI and
effectiveness of contraceptives and it will also be useful to sexuality experts
involved in the development and promotion of safer sex pregnancies. It will
also help to identify students who either use or misuse contraceptive method,
thereby putting them at risk of unwanted pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually
transmitted disease. It will also be of importance in educating the
undergraduate on the choice of contraceptive methods.
Conclusively, it is envisaged that this study will contribute
meaningfully to the ongoing debate on the strategies for educating students on
sexuality and contraception.
Based on the assumptions, the following research questions have
1.Can the knowledge of sex education reduce
promiscuity among undergraduates?
2.Is there any relationship between the knowledge
of sex education and the usage of contraceptives?
3.Does peer group play significant role in
4.Does the knowledge/usage of contraceptives
increase sexuality among the undergraduates?
1.6SCOPE OF STUDY
The study shall focus on sexuality and contraception among
students. In this case, this study will review the plight of sexuality and the
use of contraception among students of College of Education, Ekiadolor, Edo
State. The school is located at Ekiadolor Community which is in Ovia North East
Local Government Area of Edo State. Due to the pattern of life style of the
students all over the country, the result of this study can serve as a guide to
what the situation could be in other parts of the country.
1.7DEFINITION OF TERMS
things people do and feel that are connected with their desire or ability to
practice of making it possible for a woman to have sex without having baby or
the methods for doing this, birth control.
drug, object or method used to make it possible for a woman to have sex without
having a baby or contracting an STD.
Sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex.
having sex with a lot of people indiscriminately.
student who is doing a University course for a first degree
Education given to students about the physical process and emotions involved in
condition of being pregnant
activity in which a male and female join their sexual organs in order to create
babies or for pleasure.
Sexually transmitted disease
Sexually transmitted infection
Human Immunodeficiency virus
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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