1956 oil was first struck in commercial qualities in Oloibiri in
the present day Ogbia Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. Accordingly, the
discovery of oil has brought economic prospect to the nation and environmental
degradation to the lives of the people who lived around multinational oil
companies, where oil exploration activities is carried out.
National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) estimated that about 2, 300 cubic meters
of crude oil are jettisoned into the environment yearly thus causing oil spills
ØTo guide this
study, four research questions were raised while four hypotheses were
formulated and tested.
design was survey method using simple random method four hundred (400)
indigenes of Bayelsa were selected for the study.
for data collection were questionnaire and observation. Simple percentage was
used to analyze the data obtained.
ØThe data analysis
revealed that oil spillage affects health of the people.
output of the people are decreasing annually as a result of oil spillage in the
environment destroying soil fertility.
Scarcity of water even when Bayelsa State is an island as a result
of water pollution. In conclusion it reveals that nothing or less has been done
to the suffering of the people of Bayelsa State. When there is an outbreak of
oil spillage in the community. There is no potable water for the people when
their source of drinking water is polluted they have no alternative of other
source of drinking water.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Definition of terms
Causes of oil spillage
Environmental health hazards
resulting from oil spillage
General effects of oil
incidents on Nigerian coastal areas
Contamination of safe drinking
and wasting waters
Management of environmental
health hazards from oil spills
Theoretical frame work
Design and method of the study
Sample method and sample size
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis
Data analysis and interpretation
Tabulation of data analysis
Presentation of research
Summary, conclusion and
Recommendations and conclusion
The World Health Organization
(WHO) defined health as a state of complete physical, mental, social and
spiritual well-being of individual and not merely the absence of diseases or
infirmity (WHO, 1964). Ogbimi (2009) holds that an individual is affected by
almost everything in the environment. Equally, health is the perfect state of
the individual in his physical, mental, social and emotionally well being.
Health is seen as an environmentally influenced state of well being, hence it
becomes necessary to look at the health of people as directly influenced by
their immediate environment.
Environmental health is a branch of public health that is concerned with all
aspect of the natural and physical environment which may affect human health.
The World Health Organization (WHO) defined it as those aspects of the human
body, (human health) and disease that are determined by factors in the
environment (wikipedia, 2007). The focus of environmental health has been the
direct pathological agents and the effects in health and well being of the
broad physical, psychological, social and aesthetic environment which include
housing, urban development, land use and transportation. The scope of
environmental health include hazardous materials, pollution, disaster, prehardness,
food safety, waste management and occupational health. One aspect of interest
to researchers is the environmental health as the impact of oil spills on the
health of members in host communities where multinationals carry out huge oil
drilling or exportation activities. An area with largest concentration of such
facilities in the Niger Delta region in Nigeria. Alagoa (1999) and Ekiyor
(2006) the Niger Delta covers 70, 000 km2 within
wet lands. It is home to 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups with
diverse mangrove swamp forests, fresh water swamps, and low land rain forests.
Dabbs (2006 however put it that the ecosystems as well as the individuals
are at the receiving end of pollutants from oil spills and gas flares.
Niger Delta has witnessed the poisoning of the waters of this country and
destruction of vegetation and agricultural land by oil spills which occur
during petroleum exploration. But since the discovery of the oil industry in
Nigeria, more than thirty years ago, there has been no concerned and effective
effort on the part of the government, let alone the oil operators to control
environmental health hazards associated with the industry. Sola (2002)
expressed that in Lagos State today as well the riverine cities in Nigeria such
as Bayelsa, the worst type of pollution is oil. In other words, he warned that
potential pollution from the oil companies to land and water poses very serious
problem to the oil producing areas. Estimate shows that 89 million barrels of
petroleum were spilled into Niger Delta region between 1976 and 1996 (Nwilo,
2009). The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) puts the quantity of
petroleum injected into the environment yearly at 2, 300 cubic meters of oil
spills annually. These estimates raise grave concerns for the environmental
health of host communities.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Brass Local Government Area is
one of the eight local government in Bayelsa State which is a major force in
the production of oil. Bayelsa State with an estimated population of about two
million people ranks amongst the top of oil and gas producing areas of the
country contributing over 30% Nigerian’s total oil production. Oil wells are
scattered across the State. Jonathan (2003) recalled that since 1956 when oil
was first struck in commercial quantities in Oloibiri, oil exploration has been
in the increase in Bayelsa State. Brass Local Government Area which is the area
of a case study is host to Agip Oil facilities located in Town Brass an Ijaw
community which also serves as head quarters of the Brass Local
Government of the State. Oil exploration grants such as Shell, Chevron, Texaco
all have flow stations in other local government has had its fair share of oil
spills in the recent past hence the study will investigate the management and
control of health hazards resulting from oil spillage in the area.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Oil spillage has been the bone
of contention between communities and multinational companies dating back to
when oil was first struck at Oloibiri in Bayelsa State. A report by (NOSDRA) as
at 2010 puts oil spills in the Niger Delta at 3, 203. between the period
January 2006 and June 2010, the growth of the country’s oil industry has led to
substantial environmental health hazards in oil producing areas in Bayelsa
State. Statistics paint a grain picture of oil spillage which occur almost on a
monthly basis. The World Bank on its reports argued that the true quantity of
petroleum spilled into the environment is underestimated (World Bank, 1995).
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), environmental hazards are
responsible for about a quarter of the total burden of diseases world wide and
nearly 359 in regions such as Sub-Sahara Africa. The World Health Organization
estimates that as many as 13 million deaths can be prevented by making the
environment healthier (WHO, 2010).
Health hazards emanating from oil spills is directly linked to the level of
public outery and disaffection among the inhabitants of oil producing areas.
Despite growing concern from the government there still appear from accounts of
research work done, inadequate data and information as well as appropriate
policies to manage the challenges (Onokeroraye, 2001) some findings released
showed that the two key areas where intervention fall short are poverty
alleviation and possibility of enhancement of diseases burden which is the
centre of agitations of people who live around oil exploration area in Niger
Delta. Much of the health implications of oil spillage have remained a matter
of conjecture. Health hazards are not well documented and there appears to be
inadequate health management apparatus to combat the over increasing burden in
the coastal regions on oil exploration activities. Recent oil spills in Brass
Local Government where the Nigeria Agip Oil Company (NADC) operates has several
oil facilities which was reported in the month of May, 2009 has raised further
concerns making it an idea study area for the study.
According to Ndubuisi and Asai (2007) despite increasing concerns from the
damages caused to the health of individuals and the various efforts at the
control of the maintenance of oil spills, little has been done to migrate the
health hazards emanating from oil spills.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study aims to determine and
ascertain health hazards from oil spillage in the study area which is Brass
Local Government Area of Bayelsa State.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Studies in environmental health
are ongoing, however this research study will increase the capacity of research
in the field of providing policy makers a legal framework material for law
making. Government will also adopt practical means of managing health hazards
which is cost effective and
empowering. The academic will also be enlightened in this field of interest
which is not often looked into. Research is largely for the benefit of those
who live and thrive in oil producing regions. It is necessary that the findings
of the research will contribute to remedy some of the health problems in the
HO: there is no significant
relationship between health hazards and oil spills in the study area.
H1: there is a significant
difference between health hazards and oil spills I the study area.
HO: there is no significant
relationship between the levels of management of oil spills and the health of
H1: there is a significant
relationship between level of management of oil spills and the health of the
HO: there is no significant relationship
between oil spillage and the disease burden of the people.
H1: there is a significant
relationship between oil spillage and the disease burden of the people.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
is the level of management of oil spillage in the area of study?
measures are put in place to mitigate the health hazards from oil spillage?
are the stakeholders in the management effort in the study area?
are the common health hazards from oil spills in the study of man?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study has been designed and
organized to include a comprehensive analysis of environmental health hazards
in oil producing areas. The research is also reduced in scope to oil spillage,
as it affects the human focus of the researcher. Hence, gas flaring which is
another by-product of oil exploration is largely neglected.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
To avoid ambiguity, the
following terms will be defined as used in this context of research work.
Management: This is the process of planning, organizing, leading and
controlling the efforts of an organization and members using all the
organizational resources to achieve set goals.
Environment: This is the aggregate of all external and internal conditions as
it affects the existence, growth and welfare of organisms or one’s surrounding
or external circumstance collectively.
Health: According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Health is the state
of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence
of disease or infirmity. Furthermore, it is the condition of a person’s body,
mind or state of being physically and mentally sound or a condition of the
degree of which it is free from illness or the state of being well to be in a
good or poor health.
Hazards: This is something that is dangerous and likely to cause damage to
the health of an organism, animal or human being.
Exploration: The act of finding something and examining it and making the best
use of it.
Oil exploration: The act of finding or searching for oil in the ground in order to
make use of its usefulness.
NNPC: Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation.
MEHH: Modern Environmental Health Hazards.
WHO: World Health Organization.
EHH: Environmental Health Hazards.
Water pollution: This is the emitting of huge amount of carbon monoxide and ethane
from the flow stations and pollute water in the oil producing communities in
Bayelsa State and the Niger Delta.
NADC: Nigeria Agip Oil Company.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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