The purpose of this survey research is to explore the leadership
patterns of public primary school headmaster in Edo State as perceived by
headmasters. The subjects of this study include 20 public primary school
headmasters and 100 public primary school teachers. The questionnaires has two
parallel forms, one for the headmasters to rate themselves and other in which teachers
can rate the headmasters. According to section (1) and section (2) the
headmasters rated themselves the highest on the human resources frame in
addition to this the majority of the headmasters consider themselves as being
effective leaders and managers. As to teacher rating of the headmasters were
rated the highest on the human resources frame in section 1 and section 2.
moreover the majority of the teachers think that the headmasters that they work
with are effective managers and leaders.
1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
For many years now, researchers in the area of educational
leadership have attempted to identify links between educational leadership and
school effectiveness research. This phenomenon is mainly due to the perception
that educational leaders, especially school headmasters, affect school
effectiveness (Levin $ Lezotte 1990; Reynolds $ Cuttance. 1992; Cheng 1994;
Pashiardis, 2004). However two main issues have arisen; firstly what position
or roles do leader have in a school organization? Secondly under what condition
does school leadership affect student’s achievement and to what existent?
to the first issue, it is interesting that the vast majority of researchers
have been involved mainly in studies of principals leaders patterns. However
recent research has also been concerned with the leadership of person who have
other roles in a school organization such as teachers (Harris$ Muijs, 2003,
Pashiardis, 2004). As a consequence, it is necessary to investigate the
parameters of many individuals leadership pattern in order to give a more
complete overview of school leadership.
issue is more complex due to contradictory finding concerning effects of
leadership on student’s achievement some studies found no influence where as
others identified some effect (Heck 1992; Johnson 1993)
analysis conducted by hallanger $ Heck (1996; 1998) and Witxiers, Bosker $
kruger (2003) emphasized at least two important element that differentiate the
result among many studies firstly the different educational systems and
cultures among the various countries lead to different result (also in
pashisrdis, thedy, papanaoum,$ Johansson, 2003). Secondly the absence of intermediate
variables between principal or headmaster leadership and students achievement
tens to find no link between them (also in Teddlie $ Renolds 2000).
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
on the above, this study aims to examine the headmaster contribution to school
effectiveness among primary schools in Edo state. This work has adopted
specific theories with regards to these three variable more specifically, it is
based on the (Hoy $ Miskel 2001). Second these concept are presented at many
level in schools for example, leaders can be identified at school level (e.g.
headmaster) or at classroom level (e.g. teachers) (Cheng, 1994) moreover, there
are many culture in a school such as organizational culture, teacher culture,
students, culture, classroom, culture (Mechr $ Midgley 1996). Finally multi
level models indicate many level of effectiveness such as the student’s level,
the classroom level and the school level (Ereemers 1994)
concept that we examined in this study was school leadership. The examination
of this concept involves many difficulties because of the large number of its
definitions (Hoy $ Miskel 2001) one theory that views the multidimensional
nature of leadership and especially effective leadership, is the Bolman $ Deals
theory of leadership, frames (1991;1997). This theoretical frame work is based
on the assumption that four leadership dimensions play important roles in
1.The structural frame which emphasizes goals,
planning and coordination;
2.The human resources frame, which is sensitive to
the human needs of others.
3.The political frame which recognized the ways
that people seek to advance their own interest and
4.The symbolic frame which focuses in the rituals,
myths and ceremonies that give meaning to organizational cultures.
The evidence of several recent studies supports the main
assumptions of the theory. At the same time research identified new elements
that complete the model for example Bolman and Deal (1991; 1992) found that the
leader’s ability to use many frames is highly correlated with their
A second concept that concerns this study
is organizational culture. Again the large numbers of definitions contribute to
the difficulty of studying this concept as well based mainly on schein
definition contributes to the difficulty of studying this concept as well.
Based mainly on Schein definition (1992), Hoy $ Miskel (2001) defined culture
as “the shared orientation that hold the unit together and give it a
distinctive identify”. However, substantial disagreement arises about
what is shared (norms, values, philosophies, perspectives, beliefs,
expectation, attitude, Myths or ceremonies.). Another problem is determining
the intensity of shares orientations of organization all members. While studies
of educational leadership have focused on leaders in administrative position,
recent studies are focusing on teachers as leaders (Bellon $ Beaudry 1992;
Boles $ Troen, 1992; Wasley 1991). The recent educational reform movements,
such as restructuring and site based management have promoted increased teacher
participation and leadership in the decision making processes of various
aspects of school administration. Studies about teacher’s roles in those reform
efforts are beginning to emerge.
Information about leader who have guided
or provoked their organization to change is also beginning to emerge. These
leaders began with having a vision developed a shared vision with their
co-workers and valued the organization personnel. Leaders who changed their
organization were proactive and took risks. They recognized shifts in the
interests or needs of their clientele, anticipated to the need to change and
challenged the status quo. Educational leaders of change have these
characteristics. How these characteristics are manifested by educational
leaders is presented in the characteristics section of this paper. Since
limited data exist on educational leaders the information on the
characteristics of these leaders is drawn primarily from the literature on
effective schools. However for effective school management. Teacher leadership
roles are involving teachers as mentor’s team leaders, curriculum developers
and staff development providers and intend to “improve the quality of public
education while allowing teachers greater leadership in the development of
those improvements (Wasley 1991). These roles involve teachers in decision
making processes and facilitate teachers becoming leaders of change. Nickse
(1997) studied teachers as change agents and advocated teachers in leadership
roles in change efforts for four reasons.
1.Teachers have a vested interest. “they care
about what they do and how they do it and feel a sense of responsibility for
2.Teachers have a sense of history they are “aware
of the norms of their colleagues”
3.Teachers know the community “have information
concerning the values and attitude of the community” and
4.Teachers can implement change they “are where the
action is. In the position to initiate planned change on the basis of need.
Yet despite these reasons and attempt to promote teachers as
leaders of change and to extend teacher leadership roles, teachers do not view
themselves as leaders (Bellon $ Beaudry 1992; Wasley 1991).
Nevertheless the data on leaders of educational change and the emerging
information on teacher leadership indicate that the characteristic of these
individuals mirror those of leaders who have changed other organization. Leaders
of educational change have vision, faster a shared vision and value human
resources. They are proactive and take risks. In addition they strongly believe
that the purpose of schools is to meet the academic needs of students and are
effective communicators and listeners. Leaders of educational change have
vision, faster a shared vision, and value human resources. They are proactive
and take risks.
1.2PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to unveil the leadership pattern of
public prime school headmasters based on the Rota they pay for effective school
management. The specific research questions of the study are as follows;
1.What kinds of leadership pattern are adopted by
the headmasters of public elementary school?
2.Do leadership pattern differ in relation to the
headmasters experience in the field?
3.Do leadership patterns differ in relation to the
teachers experience in the field?
4.Do leadership patterns differ in relation to the
teachers work experience with their current headmasters?
5.Do headmasters consider themselves as effective
managers and leaders?
6.Do teachers consider their headmaster as
effective managers and leaders?
7.Is there a significant difference between the
leadership patterns of female and male headmasters?
8.To examine the reason responsible for lack of
effective administration in primary school in Esan West local government area
of Edo state.
1.3SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study lies in its exploratory nature as it
attempts to unveil the leadership pattern employed in public primary schools in
Edo state. This study is innovative in the sense that it will be first study to
promote the leadership patter for effective management. This research wil
provide additional evidence to educational authorities in choosing or training
Furthermore it is believed to induce self awareness and reflection
in headmaster concerning their headmastership practice; it will provide at
least a basis for further studies related to leadership pattern of the Edo
state primary school headmasters. However it will also be relevant to ministry
of education, school administrators and teachers including all stakeholders in
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