Identification of difficult teaching topics in integrated science and the
causes of their difficulty were carried out in the research. Questionnaire was
used to elicit the require information and the results obtained analysed using
mean and percentages. Results of the analysis showed that while some topics
were difficult to the teachers. Other were easy. The causes of the difficulty
as indicated were also found out.
Finally, recommendation were made bared on the research findings.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the
1.2 Statement of
1.3 Purpose of
1.4 Significance of the
1.5 Scope of the
1.6 Research Questions
1.7 Limitation of the
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Nature and Structure of Integrated Science
2.2 Qualified Integrated Science
2.3 Facilities and Equipment
2.4 Area of Difficulties Topics in Integrated
2.5 Causes of these Difficult Teaching Topics
2.7 Approach to the Teaching of
3.1 Design of the
3.2 Area of
3.3 Population of the
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.6 Validation and Reliability
3.7 Administration of Instruments
3.8 Methods of Data
4.0 Analysis and Discussion
4.1 Research Question
4.2 Findings of some difficult Teaching Topic
Integrated Science by
4.3 Analysis of the Results
Findings, Summary and
5.4 Area of Further Research
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Science and technology are
concepts in national development which remain indelible in the mind of African
and third world leaders according to Ochu and Ekezie (1974).
In Nigeria science was
introduced into secondary school system as far back as (1880).
It was first taught as general
science and later speared into physics, chemistry and biology. With the
introduction of the core science subject, the general science came to be seen
as the science subject which was suitable for the less able and it was
recommended to the least science oriented and for those who do not intend to
pursue science. Syllabus was therefore devised to contain basic elements of
biology, chemistry and physics, which should be taught primarily to pupils in
the low secondary school classes. (Anani 1977).
Although attempts were made to
raise the status of general science with the introduction of a double credit
O/level, yet people still questioned the rationale of mere putting together
subjects. There was in the early sixties a new wave of thought about science in
school rather than open into professional restricting under the conditions of
normal classroom culture.
There is a hesitancy on the
part of both school teachers to try out innovations in classroom teaching.
Activities are rarely included in the classroom deliberation and laboratory
programme are seldom organized as an opportunity of exploration. Agarkara
(1998), stated that teachers learn very little from experience in the classroom
on that capacity of mastering science and new technology logics. Since
Iloputaife and Eze (1994) has tried to propose the following tasks.
Lip dating and improving the
qualify of science teaching integrating scientific education and human
features, developing a comprehensive approach for science curricula. Focus has
been put on teachers processes so as to promote the teachers understanding of
scientific method and rationality but the reality of lack of resources in most
countries has impeded them adjusting both the contents of their curriculum and
textbooks in consequence, and the training of their integrated science teachers
which often remains of very poor quality. The curriculum is inter disciplinary
and it is supposed to provide the teachers to see the concept and the
pedagogical principles which unify the separate subject matter thus harmonizing
the knowledge derived from the integrated.
The course is supposed to
provide the teachers with a broad view of science which enlightens his
interactions with his environment of this mental manipulative and social skills
unesco - unicef (1971).
Essentially, integrated science
is designed to develop interest in the teaching that his is encourage to pursue
further student in science discipline.
Secondary school was to lay a
solid foundation in the learners early study of science for further studied.
A significant proportion of
Nigeria J.S.S integrated science. Teachers do not achieve as well as they
should in integrated science examination, Iloputaife and Eze, (1994).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Based on the background of the
study. Here, one or two problems are shown.
First, some teachers have the
problems of finding some topics difficult to teach in integrated science. This
was also confirmed by research evidence in Nigeria, Desai (1994) indicates
low integrated science attainments of teachers. The condition was
amplified by the alarming low number of qualified teachers in integrated
science area irrespective of the crucial role of integrated science Neera
Second, as a result, there are
some problems in the implementation of the curriculum Olarewaju (1987), besides
achievement has been shown to be very low and unimpressive Okebukola and
Jegede, (1999). These might negate the philosophy behind the introduction of
the integrated science core curriculum as J.S.S leave. Also Jegede (1999) and
Akueailo (1998) undependably in their studied tend to show that the teaching of
integrated science in Nigerian secondary school are inadequate.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose oft his study is to
identify the difficult teaching topics in J.S. integrated science curriculum.
In the relation to teachings area of specialization
In relation to teachers qualification
In relation to availability of instructional materials in Enugu urban area
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The identification of these
difficult teaching topics in integrated science will enlighten the teachers as
well as government and expose them to the area they specialized on. Being aware
of these, difficult topics school authority, the government and even the science
teachers association of Nigeria will be of great help in planning in-service
course for the teachers in those areas of science. This also brings to light
the need of equipping higher institutions and universities preparing integrated
science teachers with adequate training needed for planning and execution of
integrated science in our secondary schools.
The exposure of these
difficulty topics will motivate the integrated science authors and publishers
to give a details attention on these different area in their write up.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study was restricted to
identification of difficult teaching topics in junior secondary schools in
Enugu urban area Enugu State.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are proposed.
What topics do the teachers find difficult in teaching J.S.S integrated
Why do teachers have difficulty in teaching those identified topics in
How can the difficulty in teaching those topics be remedied?
What influence has experience on the identification of topics as difficult?
What effects of qualification on finding a teaching topics difficult?
What effect has sex on findings a teaching topics difficult?
What is the effect of area of specialization in identification of a topics as
What in your opinion are the possible remedies the difficulty experienced?
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