THE USE OF AUDIO- VISUAL TECHNOLOGY IN SCHOOL LIBRARIES AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL EARLY LEARNING CENTER/DOROTHY INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL SCHOOL, ABA
USE, AUDIO-, VISUAL, TECHNOLOGY, SCHOOL, LIBRARIES, STUDENTS, ACADEMIC, PERFORMANCE CASE, STUDY, INTERNATIONAL, EARLY, LEARNING, CENTER DOROTHY, INTERNATIONAL, SCHOOL, SCHOOL ABA
The Use Of Audio- Visual Technology In School Libraries And Students Academic Performance: A Case Study Of International Early Learning Center/dorothy International School School, Aba, Abstract
The Age Of Digitalization And Globalization Has Given
Unprecedented Impetus To The Development Audio-visual Technology- Audio-visual
The age of digitalization and globalization has given
unprecedented impetus to the development audio-visual technology. Audio-visual
instructions in schools have therefore continued to accelerate students’
understanding and appreciation of learning.
The value of audio- visual media is further underscored by their
positive impact in school libraries, the libraries positive influence of the
academic performance of students and the enhancement of teacher’s performance.
Libraries are no doubt veritable instruments in a nation’s educational
The work therefore focuses on the use of audio-visual technology
in school libraries, evaluated the effects of the use of audio-visual
technology on the academic performance of students, and proffers solutions to problems
hampering the effective application of audio-visual technology in our
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Profile of IELC/DISS
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Significance of Study
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6 Research Questions
1.8 Definition of Terms
2.1 Development and trends in Audio-Visual Technology
2.2 Relevance / Value of Audio-Visual technology
2.3 Impact of Audio-Visual Instructions on students
2.4 Factors Affecting Audio-Visual Material and
3.1 Area of the Study
3.1.1 Population of the Study
3.2 Sample Plan
3.3 Data Collection Techniques
3.4 Data Analysis techniques
Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.2 Discussions and Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings
The global wave in the use of educational technology and its revolutionary
effects is a major attraction to the choice of this topic for study. This
project examined systematically the effects of the use of students in
developing nation like Nigeria taking the case of a private primary cum
secondary school library. The choice of private school is pertinent, as most
government schools have no functional libraries. There is a growing
consciousness among some private school owners on the relevance of functional
This project identified that an ideal library exists in International
Early Learning Centre / Dority International Secondary School Aba in Abia
State. A wide range of audio-visual materials and their equipment for operation
abound in the library.
However, many a time materials and equipment are not used in the
library. Similarly, the students are unable to use the materials and equipment
themselves. There is no convenient time for them to use the audio-visual
materials and equipment.
Despite all these constraints, audiovisual technology is adequately used in the
school in teaching and learning.
The results gathered indicated that students’ academic
performances are significantly improved after being taught using audiovisual
Nowadays, knowledge is recorded in many physical forms. Before printing was
invented, the papyrus, vellum, codex etc were used in recording human
knowledge. With the invention of printing came books and other printing forms.
Recently, another form of media has come into prominence and that is the
audio-visual media. Audio-visual may include graphic materials such as
pictures, maps charts, sides etc, and finally multimedia packages such as
motion pictures, video recording etc. There are also information-bearing
items like microforms, computer readable data files and three-
dimensional objects e.g. botanical specimens.
Audio-visuals have a variety of definitions. It is derived from a latin work
meaning, “I hear”. In library
and information science, it is replay of sound which we hear. This covers
microforms, disc recorders, amplifiers, loud-speakers and their enclosures and
any other techniques which are used to record or replay sound waves (Sincher,
Audio-visuals mean something related to sound and visual or light. They include
printed materials and their equipment.
Audio-visual materials can be categorized into audio materials and visual
materials – Audio include Radio, lecture/talk, Audio tapes/cassette compact
Disc, Telephone, etc. Visual materials can be identified by grouping than into
two ways-2 dimensional and 3 dimensional; projectiles and Non projectuals.
Visual materials can also be classified under graphics/photographic.
Audiovisuals are a combination of audio and visuals. They include TV
programmes, multi-media packages, VCR, and even computer programmes. Some
cannot be treated without the equipment for using them as progectors, TV
receiver, microreader, Record player, photocopying machine, VTR laminating,
35mm camera with accessories etc. they can also exist in some other forms as
slides of computer screens, down loading of computer screens to create a
simulation of a computer search, interactive video disc which requires the
image storage medium, a TV monitor or computer screen, appropriate software,
and a means of receiving inputs.
They are usually not in book and so are not easily available. They are usually
expensive because some of them require projectors, moreso, they are usually
hard to process because they lack some of the normal bibliographic details.
They, however, can be catalogued using the territorial areas. Finally, they are
of easily accessible to users. They are used mainly as reference
materials, and user are encouraged to borrow them.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This research work titled. “The use of Audio – visual Technology in
school libraries and students Academic performance” is informed by the
prevalent global wave in the use of educational Technology Vis the – a vis the
situation of nursery, primary and secondary schools in Nigeria. Being an
experimental research, the study investigated the use of audio-visual material
and equipment in a typical school library (International Early Learning
Center/Dority International Secondary School Aba) and evaluated the impacts of
the use of such technology on the academic performance of students.
PROFILE OF INTERNATIONAL EARLY LEARNING CENTER/DORITY INTERNATIONAL SECONDARY
IELC / DISS is a private nursery, primary and secondary school.
IELC is for the secondary division. The school is owned by Mrs. Zovannah Onuma;
an American woman married to Eng. E. Onumah from Abia State, Nigeria.
The nursery section was established in 1984 along faulks Road Aba
while the primary section was opened in 1986. However, owing to rapid increase
in population of school children, the school relocated to its permanent site in
1992 and it was in the same year that the DISS was opened.
The school is situated at no. 19-21 Umuodu Avenue Abayi Osisiona
L. G. A,Abia State. It has a population of over 5,700 and more than 500
workforce including the non-teaching staff.
The school is aimed at graduationg students who are academically
competent, constructively self-directed and who are oriented towards being
positive, intelligent, sensitive and mature citizens of this country. The
school vigorously pursues the attainment of these heart warming objectives.
The school has a library with a strong collection of both print
and non-print materials. The library is headed by a professional librarian; a
HND graduate in library science and assisted by a professional librarian also,
there is also library security.
However, with the exponential increase in materials owing to the
new policy of the school to purchase of daily basis a copy of daily newspaper
and regular acquisition a of new materials, accommodation for the materials has
become a problem. The library also needs more personnel to help in rendering
effective service to users and to maintain orderliness and absolute quietude
especially when students are using the library.
1.3 PURPOSE OF
This research work although is carried out primarily to fulfill the basic
school requirement for the award of Technical Teacher Certificate (TTC)
is also essentially set to achieve the following objectives:
a. Identifying the
various kinds of audio-visual learning aid used in school libraries and in
IELC/DISS in particular.
b. Examining the
use of audio-visual materials and their media in the school
c. Evaluating the
impacts of the use or otherwise of the A/V materials on the academic
performance of the students in the school under study.
d. Discovering the
constraints inherent in the use of A/V material and their equipment in school
library and suggesting ways of redeeming them.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research topic is chosen to investigate the impact of the use
of A/V material sand equipment would have on pupils in nursery, primary and is
IELC/DISS Abayi, Aba, Abia State.
The desire to carry out this work is consequent upon the new wave
of educational technology sweeping across the globe. The study investigated how
school libraries in Nigeria could brace up the challenges posed by education
This study is particularly important to school managers and
government as it would enable them to know the various A/V materials and media
that can be used in school libraries and possibly come to realize the positive
impacts the use of A/V technology has on students academic performance and
hence take positive steps to develop our school libraries and position them to
encompass these media in their holding so as to meet the challenges of this
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to how A/V materials and equipment are used and assessed
in IELC/DISS library for effective use on the academic performance of students.
There is no comparative analysis as it is purely an experimental
research. It rather tested the impacts of the use of the A/V media on students
of the school studies. The study covered all sections of the school-nursery
section, only the upper nursery was studied. The reason for this being that
pupils in the lower nursery might not be sensitive enough to answer the
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the
population of students surveyed?
2. Does a library
exist in the school under study?
3. Does the school
use audio-visual materials and equipment in teaching the students and what is
the range of the audio-visual materials in use?
4. Which places
are designated for the use of the A/V materials and equipment?
5. Can the
students use the A/V resources on their own and what range of materials are
they able to use unaided?
6. What reasons
account most for the non-use of the A/V materials and equipment?
7. Does teaching
with audio-visuals facilitate understanding and in what areas is the
impact most felt?
8. How adequate is
the use of the materials and what factors account for the inadequacy of use?
After a careful study of this research topic, the following
assumptions were made and of which the research findings were expected to
authenticate of disprove that:
(a) There are varieties
of audio-visual materials and equipment that can be used; in school libraries.
(b) The use of A/V
materials and equipment increases chances of students comprehension oft he
materials and equipment are not effectively used in school libraries in Nigeria.
(d) Many pupils in nursery and
primary school and students in secondary school cannot effectively use the A/V
materials and equipment themselves.
(e) Certain factors such
as finance, accommodation and skilled manpower affect the effective use of A/V
materials and equipment in school libraries.
To properly grasp the content to his work, some concepts used need
operational definition. Some of the concepts are Audio-visual technology,
school libraries, students and academic performance.
Audio-Visual Technology in this context simply means audiovisual
materials and their equipment of use. This term is usually inter changeably
used with such terms or concept as educational technology, Audiovisual
resources, educational material etc Educational technology according to Madu
(2000) is a machinery or hardware of education of education or a highly
structured approach to teach like programmed learning. The same Madu (2000)
defined audiovisual as a combination of audio and visual materials which are
used in the instructional or learning process to facilitate teaching and
the Macmillan dictionary of information technology as a general term for
non-book materials that can be viewed or listened to such as films
filmstrips, tapes, and overhead transparences. There are a wide categories of
there materials and equipments as have been briefly high lightened in the
School libraries are libraries found in primary and secondary
schools whose collection are simply for the young people. However the scope of
school libraries have expanded and so is the opinion of experts in the field on
what a modern school library should be. A school library is presently referred
to as a multimedia Center, Media Resource Centre, School Media Centre,
Instructional Resource Centre etc. The variation in terminology not with
standing. A school library is an information center located in a school
environment for ht purpose of providing information services to support
teaching and learning process of the school. To Iroha (1985) a school library
is a collection of wide variety of library materials and resources housed in
each school, centrally agonized by a staff professionally to offer services to
students and teachers that will enrich and support the education programmes of
From the definitions given, certain features of a school library are
discernible. It is an information center which contains both, books and
non-book materials and is organized and managed by a professionally
trained librarian or qualified teacher librarian who uses available information
resources to provide information to support teaching and learning
activities of the teachers and students.
The school library in this era of information revolution and has taken sweeping
wave of globalization, has taken a new dimension in a media content, function
It is am media Resource Centre and hence, emphasizes the provision and
utilization of both print and non-print and non-print media.
Essentially, a school library is aimed at achieving the following objectives.
a. Support teaching and learning within the school
b. Promote the development of reading skills and
encourage long term learning through reading.
c. Stimulate research and independent study
d. Provide opportunities for further reading and
use classroom textbooks
e. Provide material for recreation and encourage
students to read for pleasure.
f. Provide pupils / students with vocational
information leading to choice of a suitable career.
1.7.3 Students: In this project,
students is a generic term used to designate school children in nursery,
primary and secondary schools. They are those who are taught by the teachers
and they constitute a greater number of users
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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